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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome characterization of two bile-isolated Vibrio fluvialis strains: an insight into pathogenicity and bile salt adaption.

Vibrio fluvialis is recognized as an emerging pathogen. However, not much is known about the mechanism of its pathogenesis, and its adaptation to a special niche such as the gall bladder. Here we describe two V. fluvialis strains that cause acute cholecystitis. It is noteworthy that both strains were susceptible to all antibiotics tested, which is in contrast to previous studies, suggesting substantial genetic diversity among V. fluvialis isolates. In agreement with their survival and growth in the gall bladder, the genomes of strains 12605 and 3663 contain a considerable number of genes that confer resistance to bile, including toxR,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Parallel evolution of two clades of a major Atlantic endemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogen lineage by independent acquisition of related pathogenicity islands.

Shellfish-transmitted Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections have recently increased from locations with historically low disease incidence, such as the Northeast United States (US). This change coincided with a bacterial population shift towards human pathogenic variants occurring in part through the introduction of several Pacific native lineages (ST36, ST43 and ST636) to near-shore areas off the Atlantic coast of the Northeast US. Concomitantly, ST631 emerged as a major endemic pathogen. Phylogenetic trees of clinical and environmental isolates indicated that two clades diverged from a common ST631 ancestor, and in each of these clades, a human pathogenic variant evolved independently through acquisition of distinct…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease-causing Vibrio campbellii LA16-V1, isolated from Penaeus vannamei cultured in a Latin American country.

We report here the complete genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii, isolated from Penaeus vannamei cultured in a Latin American country. The Tn3-like transposon and pirAB genes were encoded on the plasmid pLA16-2. These data support the geographical variations in the virulence plasmid found among acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND)-causing Vibrio isolates from Latin America and Asia. Copyright © 2017 Ahn et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Exception to the rule: Genomic characterization of naturally occurring unusual Vibrio cholerae strains with a single chromosome.

The genetic make-up of most bacteria is encoded in a single chromosome while about 10% have more than one chromosome. Among these, Vibrio cholerae, with two chromosomes, has served as a model system to study various aspects of chromosome maintenance, mainly replication, and faithful partitioning of multipartite genomes. Here, we describe the genomic characterization of strains that are an exception to the two chromosome rules: naturally occurring single-chromosome V. cholerae. Whole genome sequence analyses of NSCV1 and NSCV2 (natural single-chromosome vibrio) revealed that the Chr1 and Chr2 fusion junctions contain prophages, IS elements, and direct repeats, in addition to large-scale…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus type strain ATCC 27562.

Vibrio vulnificus has the highest death rate and economic burden per case of any foodborne pathogen in the United States. A complete genome sequence of the type strain promotes comparative analyses with other clinical and environmental isolates, improving our understanding of this important human pathogen and successful environmental organism. Copyright © 2017 Rusch and Rowe-Magnus.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain 2521-89, a close relative of Vibrio cholerae isolated from lake water in New Mexico, USA.

Vibrio sp. strain 2521-89 is an environmental isolate from lake water in New Mexico, USA. Average nucleotide identity, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based phylogenetic analysis suggest that this may be a potentially novel species that is closely related to Vibrio cholerae.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic variation and evolution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus ST36 over the course of a transcontinental epidemic expansion.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3) was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain. Here, we used genome-wide analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the V. parahaemolyticus ST36 clone over the course of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii LMB 29 isolated from red drum with four native megaplasmids.

Vibrio spp. are the most common pathogens for animals reared in aquaculture. Vibrio campbellii, which is often involved in shrimp, fish and mollusks diseases, is widely distributed in the marine environment worldwide, but our knowledge about its pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance is very limited. The existence of this knowledge gap is at least partially because that V. campbellii was originally classified as Vibrio harveyi, and the detailed information of its comparative genome analysis to other Vibrio spp. is currently lacking. In this study, the complete genome of a V. campbellii predominant strain, LMB29, was determined by MiSeq in conjunction with…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

pirAB(vp) -bearing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio campbellii pathogens isolated from the same AHPND-affected pond possess highly similar pathogenic plasmids.

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe shrimp disease originally shown to be caused by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND). Rare cases of AHPND caused by Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus were reported. We compared an AHPND-causing V. campbellii (VCAHPND) and a VPAHPND isolate from the same AHPND-affected pond. Both strains are positive for the virulence genes pirAB(vp) . Immersion challenge test with Litopenaeus vannamei indicated the two strains possessed similar pathogenicity. Complete genome comparison showed that the pirAB(vp) -bearing plasmids in the two strains were highly homologous, and they both shared high homologies with plasmid pVA1,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the Vibrio vulnificus strain VV2014DJH, a human-pathogenic bacterium isolated from a death case in China.

Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic pathogen, is the causative agent of life-threatening septicemia and severe wound infections. However, the pathogenicity and virulence factors of V. vulnificus are not fully understood. Here we report the complete genome sequence of V. vulnificus VV2014DJH, which was isolated from a death case.The genome of the V. vulnificus VV2014DJH contains two circular chromosomes with a mean G+C content of 46.8%, but does not consists of any plasmids. The chromosome I and chromosome II consist of 3,303,590 and 1,770,972 bp, respectively. In addition, the genome consists of 4617 protein coding genes, 172 RNA genes and type I, II…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of VCC-1, a novel ambler class A carbapenemase from Vibrio cholerae isolated from imported retail shrimp sold in Canada.

One of the core goals of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to monitor major meat commodities for antimicrobial resistance. Targeted studies with methodologies based on core surveillance protocols are used to examine other foods, e.g., seafood, for antimicrobial resistance to detect resistances of concern to public health. Here we report the discovery of a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase that was identified in a nontoxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae (N14-02106) isolated from shrimp that was sold for human consumption in Canada. V. cholerae N14-02106 was resistant to penicillins, carbapenems, and monobactam antibiotics; however, PCR did…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of an IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid in Vibrio alginolyticus.

Cephalosporin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus were firstly isolated from food products with ß-lactamases, blaPER-1, blaVEB-1 and blaCMY-2, being the major mechanisms mediating cephalosporin resistance. The complete sequence of a multidrug resistance plasmid, pVAS3-1, harboring the blaCMY-2 and qnrVC4 genes was decoded in this study. Its backbone exhibited genetic homology to known IncA/C plasmids recoverable from Enterobacteriaceae species, suggesting its possible origin from Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water.

Vibrio parahaemolyticusis a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in humans who consumeV. parahaemolyticus-contaminated seafood.The FORC_023 strain was isolated from raw fish storage water, containing live fish at a sashimi restaurant. Here, we aimed to sequence and characterize the genome of the FORC_023 strain. The genome of the FORC_023 strain showed two circular chromosomes, which contained 4227 open reading frames (ORFs), 131 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. Although the genome of FORC_023 did not include major virulence genes, such as genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), it contained genes encoding other hemolysins, secretion systems, iron…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC 33787(T) isolated from seawater with three native megaplasmids.

Vibrio alginolyticus, an opportunistic pathogen, is commonly associated with vibriosis in fish and shellfish and can also cause superficial and ear infections in humans. V. alginolyticus ATCC 33787(T) was originally isolated from seawater and has been used as one of the type strains for exploring the virulence factors of marine bacteria and for developing vaccine against vibriosis. Here we sequenced and assembled the whole genome of this strain, and identified three megaplasmids and three Type VI secretion systems, thus providing useful information for the study of virulence factors and for the development of vaccine for Vibrio. Copyright © 2016. Published…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio vulnificus FORC_017 isolated from a patient with a hemorrhagic rash after consuming raw dotted gizzard shad.

Vibrio vulnificus, a resident in the human gut, is frequently found in seafood, causing food-borne illnesses including gastroenteritis and severe septicemia. While V. vulnificus has been known to be one of the major food-borne pathogens, pathogenicity and virulence factors are not fully understood yet. To extend our understanding of the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus at the genomic level, the genome of V. vulnificus FORC_017 isolated from a female patient experiencing a hemorrhagic rash was completely sequenced and analyzed.Three discontinuous contigs were generated from a hybrid assembly using Illumina MiSeq and PacBio platforms, revealing that the genome of the FORC_017 consists…

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