Vibrio vulnificus, a resident in the human gut, is frequently found in seafood, causing food-borne illnesses including gastroenteritis and severe septicemia. While V. vulnificus has been known to be one of the major food-borne pathogens, pathogenicity and virulence factors are not fully understood yet. To extend our understanding of the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus at the genomic level, the genome of V. vulnificus FORC_017 isolated from a female patient experiencing a hemorrhagic rash was completely sequenced and analyzed.Three discontinuous contigs were generated from a hybrid assembly using Illumina MiSeq and PacBio platforms, revealing that the genome of the FORC_017 consists of two circular chromosomes and a plasmid. Chromosome I consists of 3,253,417-bp (GC content 46.49 %) containing 2943 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) and chromosome II of 1,905,745-bp (GC content 46.90 %) containing 1638 ORFs. The plasmid pFORC17 consists of 70,069-bp (GC content 43.77 %) containing 84 ORFs. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value of the FORC_017 and CMCP6 strains was 98.53, suggesting that they are closely related.Pathogenesis-associated genes including vvhA, rtx gene cluster, and various hemolysin genes were present in FORC_017. In addition, three complete secretion systems (Type I, II and VI) as well as iron uptake-related genes for virulence of the FORC_017 were detected, suggesting that this strain is pathogenic. Further comparative genome analysis revealed that FORC_017 and CMCP6 share major toxin genes including vvhA and rtx for pathogenesis activities. The genome information of the FORC_017 provides novel insights into pathogenicity and virulence factors of V. vulnificus.
Journal: Gut pathogens