July 19, 2019  |  

Performance comparison of second- and third-generation sequencers using a bacterial genome with two chromosomes.

The availability of diverse second- and third-generation sequencing technologies enables the rapid determination of the sequences of bacterial genomes. However, identifying the sequencing technology most suitable for producing a finished genome with multiple chromosomes remains a challenge. We evaluated the abilities of the following three second-generation sequencers: Roche 454 GS Junior (GS Jr), Life Technologies Ion PGM (Ion PGM), and Illumina MiSeq (MiSeq) and a third-generation sequencer, the Pacific Biosciences RS sequencer (PacBio), by sequencing and assembling the genome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which consists of a 5-Mb genome comprising two circular chromosomes. We sequenced the genome of V. parahaemolyticus with GS Jr, Ion PGM, MiSeq, and PacBio and performed de novo assembly with several genome assemblers. Although GS Jr generated the longest mean read length of 418 bp among the second-generation sequencers, the maximum contig length of the best assembly from GS Jr was 165 kbp, and the number of contigs was 309. Single runs of Ion PGM and MiSeq produced data of considerably greater sequencing coverage, 279× and 1,927×, respectively. The optimized result for Ion PGM contained 61 contigs assembled from reads of 77× coverage, and the longest contig was 895 kbp in size. Those for MiSeq were 34 contigs, 58×?coverage, and 733 kbp, respectively. These results suggest that higher coverage depth is unnecessary for a better assembly result. We observed that multiple rRNA coding regions were fragmented in the assemblies from the second-generation sequencers, whereas PacBio generated two exceptionally long contigs of 3,288,561 and 1,875,537 bps, each of which was from a single chromosome, with 73× coverage and mean read length 3,119 bp, allowing us to determine the absolute positions of all rRNA operons. PacBio outperformed the other sequencers in terms of the length of contigs and reconstructed the greatest portion of the genome, achieving a genome assembly of “finished grade” because of its long reads. It showed the potential to assemble more complex genomes with multiple chromosomes containing more repetitive sequences.


July 19, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii strain 20130629003S01 isolated from shrimp with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease.

Vibrio campbellii is widely distributed in the marine environment and is an important pathogen of aquatic organisms such as shrimp, fish, and mollusks. An isolate of V. campbellii carrying the pirAB(vp) gene, causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), has been reported. There are no previous reports about the complete genome of V. campbellii causing AHPND (VCAHPND). To extend our understanding of the pathogenesis of VCAHPND at the genomic level, the genome of V. campbellii 20130629003S01 isolated from a shrimp with AHPND was sequenced and analysed.The complete genome sequence of V. campbellii 20130629003S01 was generated using the PacBio RSII platform with single molecule, real-time sequencing. The 20130629003S01 strain consists of two circular chromosomes (3,621,712 bp in chromosome 1 and 2,245,751 bp in chromosome 2) and four plasmids of 70,066, 204,531, 143,140, and 86,121 bp. The genome contains a total of 5855 protein coding genes, 134 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. The average nucleotide identity value of 20130629003S01 and other reference V. campbellii strains was 97.46%, suggesting that they are closely related.The genome sequence of V. campbellii 20130629003S01 and its comparative analysis with other V. campbellii strains that we present here are important for a better understanding of the genomic characteristics of VCAHPND.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV]).

Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative marine ?-proteobacterium that is known to be a formidable pathogen of aquatic animals and is a model organism for the study of bacterial bioluminescence and quorum sensing. In this report, we describe the complete genome sequence of the most studied strain of this species: V. harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV]). Copyright © 2015 Wang et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of a clinical isolate and an environmental isolate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne infections in the United States. We report complete genome sequences for two V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated in 2007, CDC_K4557 and FDA_R31 of clinical and oyster origin, respectively. These two sequences might assist in the investigation of differential virulence of this organism. Copyright © 2015 Lüdeke et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10, a virulent isolate from the Gulf of Bothnia.

Vibrio anguillarum causes a fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in marine fish that leads to great economical losses in aquaculture world-wide. Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10 serotype O1 is a Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from a diseased fish on the Swedish coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and is slightly halophilic. Strain NB10 is a virulent isolate that readily colonizes fish skin and intestinal tissues. Here, the features of this bacterium are described and the annotation and analysis of its complete genome sequence is presented. The genome is 4,373,835 bp in size, consists of two circular chromosomes and one plasmid, and contains 3,783 protein-coding genes and 129 RNA genes.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus environmental strain UCM-V493.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading bacterial cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis in the world. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of an environmental strain of V. parahaemolyticus, UCM-V493, with the aim of understanding the differences between the clinical and environmental isolates of the bacteria. We also make some preliminary sequence comparisons with the clinical strain RIMD2210633.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequences of Vibrio navarrensis, a potential human pathogen.

Vibrio navarrensis is an aquatic bacterium recently shown to be associated with human illness. We report the first genome sequences of three V. navarrensis strains obtained from clinical and environmental sources. Preliminary analyses of the sequences reveal that V. navarrensis contains genes commonly associated with virulence in other human pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Gladney et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic mapping of phosphorothioates reveals partial modification of short consensus sequences.

Bacterial phosphorothioate (PT) DNA modifications are incorporated by Dnd proteins A-E and often function with DndF-H as a restriction-modification (R-M) system, as in Escherichia coli B7A. However, bacteria such as Vibrio cyclitrophicus FF75 lack dndF-H, which points to other PT functions. Here we report two novel, orthogonal technologies to map PTs across the genomes of B7A and FF75 with >90% agreement: single molecule, real-time sequencing and deep sequencing of iodine-induced cleavage at PT (ICDS). In B7A, we detect PT on both strands of GpsAAC/GpsTTC motifs, but with only 12% of 40,701 possible sites modified. In contrast, PT in FF75 occurs as a single-strand modification at CpsCA, again with only 14% of 160,541 sites modified. Single-molecule analysis indicates that modification could be partial at any particular genomic site even with active restriction by DndF-H, with direct interaction of modification proteins with GAAC/GTTC sites demonstrated with oligonucleotides. These results point to highly unusual target selection by PT-modification proteins and rule out known R-M mechanisms.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery.

Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp) and two megaplasmids (380,714 and 319,400 bp). Copyright © 2014 Richards et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio coralliilyticus 58, isolated from Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae.

We report here the complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain 58, which was originally isolated from inactive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae in Japan. The assembled genome consisted of two chromosomes and one plasmid. These data will provide valuable information and important insights into the biodiversity of this organism. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Evolution and comparative genomics of pAQU-like conjugative plasmids in Vibrio species.

To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process.pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids.The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ~160 to 206?kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions. Eight plasmids were found to carry a typical MDR region, which contained various accessory and resistance genes, including ISCR1-blaPER-1-bearing complex class 1 integrons, ISCR2-floR, ISCR2-tet(D)-tetR-ISCR2, qnrVC6, a Tn10-like structure and others associated with mobile elements. Comparison between a plasmid without resistance genes and different MDR plasmids showed that integration of different mobile elements, such as IS26, ISCR1, ISCR2, IS10 and IS6100, into the plasmid backbone was the key mechanism by which foreign resistance genes were acquired during the evolution process.This study identified pAQU-type plasmids as emerging MDR conjugative plasmids among important pathogens from different origins in Asia. These findings suggest that aquatic bacteria constitute a major reservoir of resistance genes, which may be transmissible to other human pathogens during food production and processing.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


July 7, 2019  |  

Tripartite species interaction: eukaryotic hosts suffer more from phage susceptible than from phage resistant bacteria.

Evolutionary shifts in bacterial virulence are often associated with a third biological player, for instance temperate phages, that can act as hyperparasites. By integrating as prophages into the bacterial genome they can contribute accessory genes, which can enhance the fitness of their prokaryotic carrier (lysogenic conversion). Hyperparasitic influence in tripartite biotic interactions has so far been largely neglected in empirical host-parasite studies due to their inherent complexity. Here we experimentally address whether bacterial resistance to phages and bacterial harm to eukaryotic hosts is linked using a natural tri-partite system with bacteria of the genus Vibrio, temperate vibriophages and the pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We induced prophages from all bacterial isolates and constructed a three-fold replicated, fully reciprocal 75 × 75 phage-bacteria infection matrix.According to their resistance to phages, bacteria could be grouped into three distinct categories: highly susceptible (HS-bacteria), intermediate susceptible (IS-bacteria), and resistant (R-bacteria). We experimentally challenged pipefish with three selected bacterial isolates from each of the three categories and determined the amount of viable Vibrio counts from infected pipefish and the expression of pipefish immune genes. While the amount of viable Vibrio counts did not differ between bacterial groups, we observed a significant difference in relative gene expression between pipefish infected with phage susceptible and phage resistant bacteria.These findings suggest that bacteria with a phage-susceptible phenotype are more harmful against a eukaryotic host, and support the importance of hyperparasitism and the need for an integrative view across more than two levels when studying host-parasite evolution.


July 7, 2019  |  

Plasmid dynamics in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains related to shrimp Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome (AHPNS).

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative agent of acute hapatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) which causes early mortality in white shrimp. Emergence of AHPNS has caused tremendous economic loss for aquaculture industry particularly in Asia since 2010. Previous studies reported that strains causing AHPNS harbor a 69-kb plasmid with possession of virulence genes, pirA and pirB. However, genetic variation of the 69-kb plasmid among AHPNS related strains has not been investigated. This study aimed to analyze genetic composition and diversity of the 69-kb plasmid in strains isolated from shrimps affected by AHPNS. Plasmids recovered from V. parahaemolyticus strain VPE61 which represented typical AHPNS pathogenicity, strain VP2HP which did not represent AHPNS pathogenicity but was isolated from AHPNS affected shrimp and other AHPNS V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Genbank were investigated. Protein coding genes of the 69-kb plasmid from the strain VPE61 were identical to that of AHPNS strain from Vietnam except the inverted complement 3.4-kb transposon covering pirA and pirB. The strain VP2HP possessed remarkable large 183-kb plasmid which shared similar protein coding genes to those of the 69-kb plasmid from strain VPE61. However, the 3.4-kb transposon covering pirA and pirB was absent from the 183-kb plasmid in strain VP2HP. A number of protein coding genes from the 183-kb plasmid were also detected in other AHPNS strains. In summary, this study identified a novel 183-kb plasmid that is related to AHPNS causing strains. Homologous recombination of the 69-kb AHPNS plasmid and other naturally occurring plasmids together with loss and gain of AHPNS virulence genes in V. parahaemolyticus were observed. The outcome of this research enables understanding of plasmid dynamics that possibly affect variable degrees of AHPNS pathogenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 43942.

Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 43942 has the potential to synthesize a plethora of metabolites which are of clinical and agricultural significance in response to environmental triggers. The complete genomic sequence of Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 43942 is reported herein, contributing to the knowledge base of strains in the Vibrio genus. Copyright © 2017 Gummadidala et al.


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