Vibrio fluvialis is recognized as an emerging pathogen. However, not much is known about the mechanism of its pathogenesis, and its adaptation to a special niche such as the gall bladder. Here we describe two V. fluvialis strains that cause acute cholecystitis. It is noteworthy that both strains were susceptible to all antibiotics tested, which is in contrast to previous studies, suggesting substantial genetic diversity among V. fluvialis isolates. In agreement with their survival and growth in the gall bladder, the genomes of strains 12605 and 3663 contain a considerable number of genes that confer resistance to bile, including toxR, omp U, tolC, cmeABC, rlpB, yrbK, rpoS, damX and gltK. Furthermore, integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), virulence factors and prophage regions were also detected in strains 12605 and 3663, reflecting their flexibility in recombination during the evolution of pathogenicity. Comparative analysis of nine available genomes of V. fluvialis revealed a core genome consisting of 3,147 genes. Our results highlight the association of V. fluvialis with a rare disease profile and shed light on the evolution of pathogenesis and niche adaptation of V. fluvialis.
Journal: Scientific reports