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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A molecular window into the biology and epidemiology of Pneumocystis spp.

Pneumocystis, a unique atypical fungus with an elusive lifestyle, has had an important medical history. It came to prominence as an opportunistic pathogen that not only can cause life-threatening pneumonia in patients with HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies but also can colonize the lungs of healthy individuals from a very early age. The genus Pneumocystis includes a group of closely related but heterogeneous organisms that have a worldwide distribution, have been detected in multiple mammalian species, are highly host species specific, inhabit the lungs almost exclusively, and have never convincingly been cultured in vitro, making Pneumocystis a fascinating but difficult-to-study…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

MIRU-profiler: a rapid tool for determination of 24-loci MIRU-VNTR profiles from assembled genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (TB) resulted in an estimated 1.7 million deaths in the year 2016. The disease is caused by the members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and other closely related TB causing organisms. In order to understand the epidemiological dynamics of TB, national TB control programs often conduct standardized genotyping at 24 Mycobacterial-Interspersed-Repetitive-Units (MIRU)-Variable-Number-of-Tandem-Repeats (VNTR) loci. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been widely used for studying TB transmission. However, an open-source software that can connect WGS and MIRU-VNTR typing is currently unavailable, which hinders interlaboratory communication. In this manuscript,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic adaptation of a mevalonate pathway deficient mutant in Staphylococcus aureus.

In this study we addressed the question how a mevalonate (MVA)-auxotrophic Staphylococcus aureus?mvaS mutant can revert to prototrophy. This mutant couldn’t grow in the absence of MVA. However, after a long lag-phase of 4-6 days the mutant adapted from auxotrophic to prototrophic phenotype. During that time, it acquired two point mutations: One mutation in the coding region of the regulator gene spx, which resulted in an amino acid exchange that decreased Spx function. The other mutation in the upstream-element within the core-promoter of the mevalonolactone lactonase gene drp35. This mutation led to an increased expression of drp35. In repeated experiments…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparing two Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes from Chinese immigrants with native genomes using mauve alignments.

The number of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) increases each year in South Korea. Determining the transmission dynamics based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) to cluster the strains has been challenging.WGS, annotation refinement, and orthology assignment for the GenBank accession number acquisition were performed on two clinical isolates from Chinese immigrants. In addition, the genomes of the two isolates were compared with the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, from two native Korean and five native Chinese individuals using a phylogenetic topology tree based on the Multiple Alignment of Conserved Genomic Sequence with Rearrangements (Mauve) package.The newly assigned accession numbers for two…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-based population structure analysis of the strawberry plant pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae reveals two distinct groups that evolved independently before its species description.

Xanthomonas fragariae is a quarantine organism in Europe, causing angular leaf spots on strawberry plants. It is spreading worldwide in strawberry-producing regions due to import of plant material through trade and human activities. In order to resolve the population structure at the strain level, we have employed high-resolution molecular typing tools on a comprehensive strain collection representing global and temporal distribution of the pathogen. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat regions (CRISPRs) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) were identified within the reference genome of X. fragariae LMG 25863 as a potential source of variation. Strains from our collection…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PBHoover and CigarRoller: a method for confident haploid variant calling on Pacific Biosciences data and its application to heterogeneous population analysis

Motivation: Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has important and underutilized advantages that amplification-based platforms lack. Lack of systematic error (e.g. GC-bias), complete de novo assembly (including large repetitive regions) without scaffolding, can be mentioned. SMRT sequencing, however suffers from high random error rate and low sequencing depth (older chemistries). Here, we introduce PBHoover, software that uses a heuristic calling algorithm in order to make base calls with high certainty in low coverage regions. This software is also capable of mixed population detection with high sensitivity. PBHoovertextquoterights CigarRoller attachment improves sequencing depth in low-coverage regions through CIGAR-string correction. Results: We tested…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Integrating long-range connectivity information into de Bruijn graphs.

The de Bruijn graph is a simple and efficient data structure that is used in many areas of sequence analysis including genome assembly, read error correction and variant calling. The data structure has a single parameter k, is straightforward to implement and is tractable for large genomes with high sequencing depth. It also enables representation of multiple samples simultaneously to facilitate comparison. However, unlike the string graph, a de Bruijn graph does not retain long range information that is inherent in the read data. For this reason, applications that rely on de Bruijn graphs can produce sub-optimal results given their…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Tracing genomic divergence of Vibrio bacteria in the Harveyi clade.

The mechanism of bacterial speciation remains a topic of tremendous interest. To understand the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms of speciation in Vibrio bacteria, we analyzed the genomic dissimilarities between three closely related species in the so-called Harveyi clade of the genus Vibrio, V. campbellii, V. jasicida, and V. hyugaensis The analysis focused on strains isolated from diverse geographic locations over a long period of time. The results of phylogenetic analyses and calculations of average nucleotide identity (ANI) supported the classification of V. jasicida and V. hyugaensis into two species. These analyses also identified two well-supported clades in V. campbellii; however,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Extensive genomic diversity among Mycobacterium marinum strains revealed by whole genome sequencing.

Mycobacterium marinum is the causative agent for the tuberculosis-like disease mycobacteriosis in fish and skin lesions in humans. Ubiquitous in its geographical distribution, M. marinum is known to occupy diverse fish as hosts. However, information about its genomic diversity is limited. Here, we provide the genome sequences for 15 M. marinum strains isolated from infected humans and fish. Comparative genomic analysis of these and four available genomes of the M. marinum strains M, E11, MB2 and Europe reveal high genomic diversity among the strains, leading to the conclusion that M. marinum should be divided into two different clusters, the “M”-…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete methylome of an entomopathogenic bacterium reveals the existence of loci with unmethylated adenines.

DNA methylation can serve to control diverse phenomena in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, including gene regulation leading to cell differentiation. In bacteria, DNA methylomes (i.e., methylation state of each base of the whole genome) have been described for several species, but methylome profile variation during the lifecycle has rarely been studied, and only in a few model organisms. Moreover, major phenotypic changes have been reported in several bacterial strains with a deregulated methyltransferase, but the corresponding methylome has rarely been described. Here we report the first methylome description of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Photorhabdus luminescens. Eight motifs displaying a high rate of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome of streamlined marine actinobacterium Pontimonas salivibrio strain CL-TW6T adapted to coastal planktonic lifestyle.

Pontimonas salivibrio strain CL-TW6T (=KCCM 90105?=?JCM18206) was characterized as the type strain of a new genus within the Actinobacterial family Microbacteriaceae. It was isolated from a coastal marine environment in which members of Microbactericeae have not been previously characterized.The genome of P. salivibrio CL-TW6T was a single chromosome of 1,760,810 bp. Genomes of this small size are typically found in bacteria growing slowly in oligotrophic zones and said to be streamlined. Phylogenetic analysis showed it to represent a lineage originating in the Microbacteriaceae radiation occurring before the snowball Earth glaciations, and to have a closer relationship with some streamlined bacteria known…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

In vivo evolution of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients during long-term treatment.

In the current scenario, the drug-resistant tuberculosis is a significant challenge in the control of tuberculosis worldwide. In order to investigate the in vivo evolution of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, the present study envisaged sequencing of the draft genomes of 18 serial isolates from four pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) tuberculosis patients for continuous genetic alterations.All of the isolates harbored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ranging from 1303 to 1309 with M. tuberculosis H37Rv as the reference. SNPs ranged from 0 to 12 within patients. The evolution rates were higher than the reported SNPs of 0.5 in the four patients. All the isolates exhibited…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Molecular basis for the final oxidative rearrangement steps in chartreusin biosynthesis.

Oxidative rearrangements play key roles in introducing structural complexity and biological activities of natural products biosynthesized by type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). Chartreusin (1) is a potent antitumor polyketide that contains a unique rearranged pentacyclic aromatic bilactone aglycone derived from a type II PKS. Herein, we report an unprecedented dioxygenase, ChaP, that catalyzes the final a-pyrone ring formation in 1 biosynthesis using flavin-activated oxygen as an oxidant. The X-ray crystal structures of ChaP and two homologues, docking studies, and site-directed mutagenesis provided insights into the molecular basis of the oxidative rearrangement that involves two successive C-C bond cleavage steps followed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Co-location of the blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, rmtB and virulence relevant factors in an IncFII plasmid from a hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate.

Hypervirulent variants of klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP), which cause serious infections not only healthy individuals, but also the immunocompromised patients, have been increasingly reported recently. One conjugation of a hypermucoviscous strian SWU01 co-carried the resistance gene blaKPC-2 and virulence gene iroN by the PCR detection from three carbapenem-resistance hvKP. To know the genetic context of this plasmid. The whole genome of this strain was sequenced. We got a 162,552-bp plasmid (pSWU01) which co-carried the resistance gene blaKPC-2 and virulence gene iroN. It is composed of a typical IncFII-type backbone, five resistance genes including blaCTX-M-65, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1 and rmtB, and several…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide SNP and InDel mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance

Objective: Multiple resistances to isoniazid and rifampicin lead to the majority of death associated with M. tuberculosis infection. This study aimed to characterize the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (InDel) mutations associated with isoniazid and rifampicin resistance. Methods: The M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv was cultured and treated with isoniazid or rifampicin for generations. Total DNA samples from different generations were extracted for construction of DNA library, and the SNP and InDel mutation in different samples were detected by whole genome sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis such as phylogenetic tree and heap map were also performed. Results: Totally 58 nonsynonymous…

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