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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multi-omics approach identifies novel pathogen-derived prognostic biomarkers in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human pathogen that causes health-care associated blood stream infections (BSI). Although P. aeruginosa BSI are associated with high mortality rates, the clinical relevance of pathogen-derived prognostic biomarker to identify patients at risk for unfavorable outcome remains largely unexplored. We found novel pathogen-derived prognostic biomarker candidates by applying a multi-omics approach on a multicenter sepsis patient cohort. Multi-level Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between patient characteristics and pathogen features (2298 accessory genes, 1078 core protein levels, 107 parsimony-informative variations in reported virulence factors) with 30-day mortality. Our analysis revealed that presence of the helP…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PhdA catalyzes the first step of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid degradation in Mycobacterium fortuitum.

Phenazines are a class of bacterially produced redox-active metabolites that are found in natural, industrial, and clinical environments. In Pseudomonas spp., phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA)-the precursor of all phenazine metabolites-facilitates nutrient acquisition, biofilm formation, and competition with other organisms. While the removal of phenazines negatively impacts these activities, little is known about the genes or enzymes responsible for phenazine degradation by other organisms. Here, we report that the first step of PCA degradation by Mycobacterium fortuitum is catalyzed by a phenazine-degrading decarboxylase (PhdA). PhdA is related to members of the UbiD protein family that rely on a prenylated flavin mononucleotide cofactor…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Integrated proteomics, genomics, metabolomics approaches reveal oxalic acid as pathogenicity factor in Tilletia indica inciting Karnal bunt disease of wheat.

Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The FBT1 large serine recombinase catalyzes DNA integration at pseudo-attB sites in the genus Nocardia.

Plasmid vectors based on bacteriophage integrases are important tools in molecular microbiology for the introduction of foreign DNA, especially into bacterial species where other systems for genetic manipulation are limited. Site specific integrases catalyze recombination between phage and bacterial attachment sites (attP and attB, respectively) and the best studied integrases in the actinomycetes are the serine integrases from the Streptomyces bacteriophages FC31 and FBT1. As this reaction is unidirectional and highly stable, vectors containing phage integrase systems have been used in a number of genetic engineering applications. Plasmids bearing the FBT1 integrase have been used to introduce DNA into Streptomyces…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Isolation and characterization of Bacillus sp. GFP-2, a novel Bacillus strain with antimicrobial activities, from Whitespotted bamboo shark intestine.

The abuse of antibiotics and following rapidly increasing of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is the serious threat to our society. Natural products from microorganism are regarded as the important substitution antimicrobial agents of antibiotics. We isolated a new strain, Bacillus sp. GFP-2, from the Chiloscyllium plagiosum (Whitespotted bamboo shark) intestine, which showed great inhibitory effects on the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, the growth of salmon was effectively promoted when fed with inactivated strain GFP-2 as the inhibition agent of pathogenic bacteria. The genes encoding antimicrobial peptides like LCI, YFGAP and hGAPDH and gene clusters for secondary metabolites and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila reveal evolutionary insights into sulfamethoxazole resistance.

Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila is an aerobic, glucose non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacterium that been isolated from various environmental sources, particularly aquatic ecosystems. Although resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has been reported in S. acidaminiphila, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, for the first time, we report the complete genome and antimicrobial resistome analysis of a clinical isolate S. acidaminiphila SUNEO which is resistant to sulfamethoxazole. Comparative analysis among closely related strains identified common and strain-specific genes. In particular, comparison with a sulfamethoxazole-sensitive strain identified a mutation within the sulfonamide-binding site of folP in SUNEO, which may reduce the binding affinity of sulfamethoxazole. Selection…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genome of Artemisia annua provides insight into the evolution of Asteraceae family and artemisinin biosynthesis.

Artemisia annua, commonly known as sweet wormwood or Qinghao, is a shrub native to China and has long been used for medicinal purposes. A. annua is now cultivated globally as the only natural source of a potent anti-malarial compound, artemisinin. Here, we report a high-quality draft assembly of the 1.74-gigabase genome of A. annua, which is highly heterozygous, rich in repetitive sequences, and contains 63 226 protein-coding genes, one of the largest numbers among the sequenced plant species. We found that, as one of a few sequenced genomes in the Asteraceae, the A. annua genome contains a large number of genes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mycobacterial biomaterials and resources for researchers.

There are many resources available to mycobacterial researchers, including culture collections around the world that distribute biomaterials to the general scientific community, genomic and clinical databases, and powerful bioinformatics tools. However, many of these resources may be unknown to the research community. This review article aims to summarize and publicize many of these resources, thus strengthening the quality and reproducibility of mycobacterial research by providing the scientific community access to authenticated and quality-controlled biomaterials and a wealth of information, analytical tools and research opportunities.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Landscape of the genome and host cell response of Mycobacterium shigaense reveals pathogenic features.

A systems approach was used to explore the genome and transcriptome of Mycobacterium shigaense, a new opportunistic pathogen isolated from a patient with a skin infection, and the host response transcriptome was assessed using a macrophage infection model. The M. shigaense genome comprises 5,207,883?bp, with 67.2% G+C content and 5098 predicted coding genes. Evolutionarily, the bacterium belongs to a cluster in the phylogenetic tree along with three target opportunistic pathogenic strains, namely, M. avium, M. triplex and M. simiae. Potential virulence genes are indeed expressed by M. shigaense under culture conditions. Phenotypically, M. shigaense had similar infection and replication capacities…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance

We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome changes in M. tuberculosis with rifampicin or isoniazid resistance. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and microarray technology were performed to expound DNA methylation profiles and differentially expressed genes in rifampicin or isoniazid resis- tant M. tuberculosis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biological pathway analysis and meth- ylated regulatory network analysis were conducted by online forecasting databases. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptome revealed that 335 differentially methylated genes (175 hypermethylated and 160 hypomethylated) and 132 significant differentially expressed genes (68 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated) were found to be regulated by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mosaic structure as the main feature of Mycobacterium bovis BCG genomes

Background: The genome stability of attenuated live BCG vaccine preventing the acute forms of childhood tuberculosis is an important aspect of vaccine production. The pur- pose of our study was a whole genome comparative analysis of BCG sub-strains and identification of potential triggers of sub-strains’ transition. Results: Genomes of three BCG Russia seed lots (1963, 1982, 2006 years) have been sequenced, and the stability of vaccine sub-strain genomes has been confirmed. A com- parative genome analysis of nine Mycobacterium bovis BCG and three M. bovis strains revealed their specific genome features associated with prophage profiles. A number of prophage-coded homologs…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequencing of Streptomyces atratus SCSIOZH16 and activation production of nocardamine via metabolic engineering.

The Actinomycetes are metabolically flexible microorganisms capable of producing a wide range of interesting compounds, including but by no means limited to, siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of marine-derived Streptomyces atratus ZH16 and the activation of an embedded siderophore gene cluster via the application of metabolic engineering methods. The S. atratus ZH16 genome reveals that this strain has the potential to produce 26 categories of natural products (NPs) barring the ilamycins. Our activation studies revealed S. atratus SCSIO ZH16 to be a promising source of the production of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Computational Modeling of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Understanding how complex phenotypes arise from individual molecules and their interactions is a primary challenge in biology, and computational approaches have been increasingly employed to tackle this task. In this chapter, we describe current efforts by FIOCRUZ and partners to develop integrated computational models of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The bacterium chosen as the main focus of this effort is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen associated with a broad spectrum of infections in humans. Nowadays, P. aeruginosa is one of the main problems of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in the world, because of its great capacity of survival in hospital environments and its…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional regulation of cysteine and methionine metabolism in Lactobacillus paracasei FAM18149.

Lactobacillus paracasei is common in the non-starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) community of raw milk cheeses. This species can significantly contribute to flavor formation through amino acid metabolism. In this study, the DNA and RNA of L. paracasei FAM18149 were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies to reconstruct the metabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Twenty-three genes were found to be involved in cysteine biosynthesis, the conversion of cysteine to methionine and vice versa, the S-adenosylmethionine recycling pathway, and the transport of sulfur-containing amino acids. Additionally, six methionine-specific T-boxes and one cysteine-specific T-box were found. Five of these…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Three substrains of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 display divergence in genomic sequences and hetC function.

Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a model strain for molecular studies of cell differentiation and patterning in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. Subtle differences in heterocyst development have been noticed in different laboratories working on the same organism. In this study, 360 mutations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small insertion/deletions (indels; 1 to 3 bp), fragment deletions, and transpositions, were identified in the genomes of three substrains. Heterogeneous/heterozygous bases were also identified due to the polyploidy nature of the genome and the multicellular morphology but could be completely segregated when plated after filament fragmentation by sonication. hetC is a gene upregulated in…

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