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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Using experimental evolution to identify druggable targets that could inhibit the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.

With multi-drug and pan-drug-resistant bacteria becoming increasingly common in hospitals, antibiotic resistance has threatened to return us to a pre-antibiotic era that would completely undermine modern medicine. There is an urgent need to develop new antibiotics and strategies to combat resistance that are substantially different from earlier drug discovery efforts. One such strategy that would complement current and future antibiotics would be a class of co-drugs that target the evolution of resistance and thereby extend the efficacy of specific classes of antibiotics. A critical step in the development of such strategies lies in understanding the critical evolutionary trajectories responsible for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of clinical multilocus sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae from China.

The increasing prevalence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in clinical settings has been largely attributed to dissemination of organisms of specific multilocus sequence types, such as ST258 and ST11. Compared with the ST258 clone, which is prevalent in North America and Europe, ST11 is common in China but information regarding its genetic features remains scarce. In this study, we performed detailed genetic characterization of ST11 K. pneumoniae strains by analyzing whole-genome sequences of 58 clinical strains collected from diverse geographic locations in China. The ST11 genomes were found to be highly heterogeneous and clustered into at least three major lineages…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Basic characterization of natural transformation in a highly transformable Haemophilus parasuis strain SC1401.

Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer’s disease and pneumonia, incurring serious economic losses in the porcine industry. In this study, natural competence was investigated in H. parasuis. We found competence genes in H. parasuis homologous to ones in Haemophilus influenzae and a high consensus battery of Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP-S) regulons using bioinformatics. High rates of natural competence were found from the onset of stationary-phase growth condition to mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 0.29 to 1.735); this rapidly dropped off as cells reached mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 1.735 to 1.625). As a whole, bacteria cultured in liquid media were observed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Culture-facilitated comparative genomics of the facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa.

Many insects host facultative, bacterial symbionts that confer conditional fitness benefits to their hosts. Hamiltonella defensa is a common facultative symbiont of aphids that provides protection against parasitoid wasps. Protection levels vary among strains of H. defensa that are also differentially infected by bacteriophages named APSEs. However, little is known about trait variation among strains because only one isolate has been fully sequenced. Generating complete genomes for facultative symbionts is hindered by relatively large genome sizes but low abundances in hosts like aphids that are very small. Here, we took advantage of methods for culturing H. defensa outside of aphids…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Tn2008-driven carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a period of increased incidence of infections in a Southwest Virginia hospital (USA).

The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients affected by a sudden increase in the incidence of infections by such organisms in a tertiary care hospital in Virginia, USA, in 2009-2010 and (ii) to examine whether such strains are commonly encountered in the hospital setting.The whole genomes of one outbreak strain as well as one carbapenem-resistant and one carbapenem-sensitive strain from sporadic infections in 2010-2012 were sequenced and analysed. Then, 5 outbreak isolates and 57 sporadic isolates (of which 39 were carbapenem-resistant) were screened…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Molecular characterization of IMP-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates in Tokyo.

Although KPC enzymes are most common among carbapenemases produced by Enterobacter cloacae complex globally, the epidemiology varies from one country to another. While previous studies have suggested that IMP enzymes are most common in Japan, detailed analysis has been scarce thus far. Here, we carried out a molecular epidemiological study and plasmid analysis of IMP-1-producing E. cloacae complex isolates collected from three hospitals in central Tokyo using whole-genome sequencing. Seventy-one isolates were classified into several sequence types (STs), and 49 isolates were identified as Enterobacter hormaechei ST78. Isolates of ST78 were divided into three clades by core-genome single nucleotide polymorphism…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The global distribution and spread of the mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1.

Colistin represents one of the few available drugs for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the recent plasmid-mediated spread of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 poses a significant public health threat, requiring global monitoring and surveillance. Here, we characterize the global distribution of mcr-1 using a data set of 457 mcr-1-positive sequenced isolates. We find mcr-1 in various plasmid types but identify an immediate background common to all mcr-1 sequences. Our analyses establish that all mcr-1 elements in circulation descend from the same initial mobilization of mcr-1 by an ISApl1 transposon in the mid 2000s (2002-2008; 95% highest…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in South Korea between 2010 and 2015.

This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiological time-course of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase- (NDM-) mediated carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in South Korea. A total of 146 non-duplicate NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae recovered between 2010 and 2015 were voluntarily collected from 33 general hospitals and confirmed by PCR. The species were identified by sequences of the 16S rDNA. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined either by the disk diffusion method or by broth microdilution, and the carbapenem MICs were determined by agar dilution. Then, multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing was carried out. Co-carried genes for drug resistance were identified by PCR and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Challenges of Francisella classification exemplified by an atypical clinical isolate.

The accumulation of sequenced Francisella strains has made it increasingly apparent that the 16S rRNA gene alone is not enough to stratify the Francisella genus into precise and clinically useful classifications. Continued whole-genome sequencing of isolates will provide a larger base of knowledge for targeted approaches with broad applicability. Additionally, examination of genomic information on a case-by-case basis will help resolve outstanding questions regarding strain stratification. We report the complete genome sequence of a clinical isolate, designated here as F. novicida-like strain TCH2015, acquired from the lymph node of a 6-year-old male. Two features were atypical for F. novicida: exhibition…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Capnocytophaga endodontalis sp. nov., isolated from a human refractory periapical abscess.

A novel Gram-negative, capnophilic, fusiform bacterium, designated strain ChDC OS43T, was isolated from a human refractory periapical abscess in the left mandibular second molar and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belongs to the genus Capnocytophaga, as it showed sequence similarities to Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 27872T(96.30%) and C. sputigena ATCC 33612T(96.16%). The prevalent fatty acids of strain ChDC OS43Twere isoC15:0(57.54%), C16:0(5.93%), C16:03OH (5.72%), and C18:1cis 9 (4.41%). The complete genome of strain ChDC OS43Twas 3,412,686 bp, and the G+C content was 38.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strain ChDC OS43Tand…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic characterization of a VanG-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate.

To characterize, phenotypically and genotypically, the first Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate harbouring a vanG operon.The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG operon was studied by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin.E. faecium 16-346 was resistant to rifampicin (MIC >4?mg/L), erythromycin (MIC >4?mg/L), tetracycline (MIC >16?mg/L) and vancomycin (MIC 8?mg/L), but susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC 0.5?mg/L). The strain harboured the vanG operon in its…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genome analysis reveals a complex population structure of Legionella pneumophila subspecies.

The majority of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila, a genetically heterogeneous species composed of at least 17 serogroups. Previously, it was demonstrated that L. pneumophila consists of three subspecies: pneumophila, fraseri and pascullei. During an LD outbreak investigation in 2012, we detected that representatives of both subspecies fraseri and pascullei colonized the same water system and that the outbreak-causing strain was a new member of the least represented subspecies pascullei. We used partial sequence based typing consensus patterns to mine an international database for additional representatives of fraseri and pascullei subspecies. As a result, we identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Extensive gene amplification as a mechanism for piperacillin-tazobactam resistance in Escherichia coli.

Although the TEM-1 ß-lactamase (BlaTEM-1) hydrolyzes penicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, organisms expressing this enzyme are typically susceptible to ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations such as piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP). However, our previous work led to the discovery of 28 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to TZP that contained only blaTEM-1 One of these isolates, E. coli 907355, was investigated further in this study. E. coli 907355 exhibited significantly higher ß-lactamase activity and BlaTEM-1 protein levels when grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of TZP. A corresponding TZP-dependent increase in blaTEM-1 copy number was also observed, with as many as 113 copies of the gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Shigella flexneriisolated from macaques.

Non-human primates (NHPs) for biomedical research are commonly infected with Shigella spp. that can cause acute dysentery or chronic episodic diarrhea. These animals are often prophylactically and clinically treated with quinolone antibiotics to eradicate these possible infections. However, chromosomally- and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance has become an emerging concern for species in the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, five individual isolates of multi-drug resistant Shigella flexneri were isolated from the feces of three macaques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing confirmed resistance or decreased susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. S. flexneri isolates were susceptible to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PGI2, a novel SGI1-relative multidrug-resistant genomic island characterized in Proteus mirabilis.

A novel 61,578-bp genomic island named Proteus genomic island 2 (PGI2) was characterized in Proteus mirabilis of swine origin in China. The 23.85-kb backbone of PGI2 is related to those of Salmonella genomic island 1 and Acinetobacter genomic island 1. The multidrug resistance (MDR) region of PGI2 is a complex class 1 integron containing 14 different resistance genes. PGI2 was conjugally mobilized in trans to Escherichia coli in the presence of a conjugative IncC helper plasmid. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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