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Sunday, September 22, 2019

CagY-dependent regulation of type IV secretion in Helicobacter pylori is associated with alterations in integrin binding.

Strains of Helicobacter pylori that cause ulcer or gastric cancer typically express a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). CagY is an ortholog of VirB10 that, unlike other VirB10 orthologs, has a large middle repeat region (MRR) with extensive repetitive sequence motifs, which undergo CD4+ T cell-dependent recombination during infection of mice. Recombination in the CagY MRR reduces T4SS function, diminishes the host inflammatory response, and enables the bacteria to colonize at a higher density. Since CagY is known to bind human a5ß1 integrin, we tested the hypothesis that recombination in the CagY MRR…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics analysis of plasmid pPV989-94 from a clinical isolate of Pantoea vagans PV989.

Pantoea vagans, a gram-negative bacterium from the genus Pantoea and family Enterobacteriaceae, is present in various natural environments and considered to be plant endophytes. We isolated the Pantoea vagans PV989 strain from the clinic and sequenced its whole genome. Besides a chromosome DNA molecule, it also harboured three large plasmids. A comparative genomics analysis was performed for the smallest plasmid, pPV989-94. It can be divided into four regions, including three conservative regions related to replication (R1), transfer conjugation (R2), and transfer leading (R3), and one variable region (R4). Further analysis showed that pPV989-94 is most similar to plasmids LA637P2 and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila reveal evolutionary insights into sulfamethoxazole resistance.

Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila is an aerobic, glucose non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacterium that been isolated from various environmental sources, particularly aquatic ecosystems. Although resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has been reported in S. acidaminiphila, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, for the first time, we report the complete genome and antimicrobial resistome analysis of a clinical isolate S. acidaminiphila SUNEO which is resistant to sulfamethoxazole. Comparative analysis among closely related strains identified common and strain-specific genes. In particular, comparison with a sulfamethoxazole-sensitive strain identified a mutation within the sulfonamide-binding site of folP in SUNEO, which may reduce the binding affinity of sulfamethoxazole. Selection…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Co-occurrence of mcr-1 in the chromosome and on an IncHI2 plasmid: persistence of colistin resistance in Escherichia coli.

Two colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains (FS13Z2S and FS3Z6C) possessing chromosomally encoded mcr-1 isolated from swine were characterised. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that in strain FS13Z2S mcr-1 occurred in triplicate in the chromosome with another copy encoded on a pHNSHP45-2-like IncHI2 plasmid, whereas in strain FS3Z6C only one copy mcr-1 was inserted in the chromosome. It seems likely that the triplication of chromosomal copies of mcr-1 in FS13Z2S is due to intramolecular transposition events via a composite transposon containing an mcr-1 cassette bracketed by two copies of insertion sequence ISApl1, and the pap2 gene at the insertion site was truncated by an…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Coexistence of mcr-1, blaKPC-2 and two copies of fosA3 in a clinical Escherichia coli strain isolated from urine.

Here we report the first clinical Escherichia coli isolate co-harboring mcr-1, blaKPC-2 and two copies of fosA3 from China. The five plasmids of the isolate were completely sequenced and analyzed. Gene mcr-1 and blaKPC-2 were located on IncI2 and IncR plasmid, respectively. A variety of other resistance determinants such as fosA3 (two copies), blaCTX-M-123, blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M-65 were also identified from the rest plasmids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The presence of colistin resistance gene mcr-1 and -3 in ESBL producing Escherichia coli isolated from food in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Colistin is indicated for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. However, the spread of colistin-resistant bacteria harbouring an mcr gene has become a serious concern. This study investigated local foods in Vietnam for contamination with colistin-resistant bacteria. A total of 261 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolates from 330 meat and seafood products were analysed for colistin susceptibility and the presence of mcr genes. Approximately, 24% (62/261) of ESBL- or AmpC-producing E. coli isolates showed colistin resistance; 97% (60/62) of colistin-resistant isolates harboured mcr-1, whereas 3% (2/62) harboured mcr-3. As the result of plasmid analysis of two…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in ready-to-eat vegetables in China.

Vegetables harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics are a growing food safety issue. However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this study, 411 vegetable samples from 36 supermarkets or farmer’s markets in 18 cities in China, were analyzed for CRE. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and other resistance genes were analyzed among the CRE isolates. Plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes were studied by conjugation, replicon typing, S1-PFGE southern blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing. CRE isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten vegetable samples yielded one or more CRE isolates. The highest detection…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mosaic structure as the main feature of Mycobacterium bovis BCG genomes

Background: The genome stability of attenuated live BCG vaccine preventing the acute forms of childhood tuberculosis is an important aspect of vaccine production. The pur- pose of our study was a whole genome comparative analysis of BCG sub-strains and identification of potential triggers of sub-strains’ transition. Results: Genomes of three BCG Russia seed lots (1963, 1982, 2006 years) have been sequenced, and the stability of vaccine sub-strain genomes has been confirmed. A com- parative genome analysis of nine Mycobacterium bovis BCG and three M. bovis strains revealed their specific genome features associated with prophage profiles. A number of prophage-coded homologs…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Clonal emergence of invasive multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis deconvoluted via a combination of whole-genome sequencing and microbiome analyses.

Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid.Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S. epidermidis bloodstream isolates collected at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, between 2013 and 2016. Molecular relationships were assessed via complementary phylogenomic approaches. Abundance of the linezolid resistance determinant cfr was determined in stool samples via…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Redefinition and unification of the SXT/R391 family of integrative and conjugative elements.

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are key drivers of the spread of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of cholera, and other pathogenic bacteria. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs was defined based on the conservation of a core set of 52 genes and site-specific integration into the 5′ end of the chromosomal gene prfC Hence, the integrase gene int has been intensively used as a marker to detect SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical isolates. ICEs sharing most core genes but differing by their integration site and integrase gene have been recently reported and excluded from…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Diversity among blaKPC-containing plasmids in Escherichia coli and other bacterial species isolated from the same patients.

Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a significant public health concern, and genes encoding the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have contributed to the global spread of carbapenem resistance. In the current study, we used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the diversity of blaKPC-containing plasmids and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among 26 blaKPC-containing Escherichia coli, and 13 blaKPC-containing Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella variicola, Klebsiella michiganensis, and Serratia marcescens strains, which were isolated from the same patients as the blaKPC-containing E. coli. A blaKPC-containing IncN and/or IncFIIK plasmid was identified in 77% (30/39) of the E. coli and other bacterial species analyzed. Complete…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, in NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

The rapid increase in carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacteria has renewed focus on the importance of polymyxin antibiotics (colistin or polymyxin E). However, the recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants (mcr-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -7), especially mcr-1, in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a serious threat to global health. Here, we characterized a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, located on a transferrable 95,983-bp IncFII-type plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The deduced amino-acid sequence of MCR-8 showed 31.08%, 30.26%, 39.96%, 37.85%, 33.51%, 30.43%, and 37.46% identity to MCR-1, MCR-2, MCR-3, MCR-4, MCR-5, MCR-6, and MCR-7, respectively. Functional cloning indicated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic adaptation of a mevalonate pathway deficient mutant in Staphylococcus aureus.

In this study we addressed the question how a mevalonate (MVA)-auxotrophic Staphylococcus aureus?mvaS mutant can revert to prototrophy. This mutant couldn’t grow in the absence of MVA. However, after a long lag-phase of 4-6 days the mutant adapted from auxotrophic to prototrophic phenotype. During that time, it acquired two point mutations: One mutation in the coding region of the regulator gene spx, which resulted in an amino acid exchange that decreased Spx function. The other mutation in the upstream-element within the core-promoter of the mevalonolactone lactonase gene drp35. This mutation led to an increased expression of drp35. In repeated experiments…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PBHoover and CigarRoller: a method for confident haploid variant calling on Pacific Biosciences data and its application to heterogeneous population analysis

Motivation: Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has important and underutilized advantages that amplification-based platforms lack. Lack of systematic error (e.g. GC-bias), complete de novo assembly (including large repetitive regions) without scaffolding, can be mentioned. SMRT sequencing, however suffers from high random error rate and low sequencing depth (older chemistries). Here, we introduce PBHoover, software that uses a heuristic calling algorithm in order to make base calls with high certainty in low coverage regions. This software is also capable of mixed population detection with high sensitivity. PBHoovertextquoterights CigarRoller attachment improves sequencing depth in low-coverage regions through CIGAR-string correction. Results: We tested…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Potential survival and pathogenesis of a novel strain, Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_022, isolated from a soy sauce marinated crab by genome and transcriptome analyses.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause gastrointestinal illness through consumption of seafood. Despite frequent food-borne outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus, only 19 strains have subjected to complete whole-genome analysis. In this study, a novel strain of V. parahaemolyticus, designated FORC_022 (Food-borne pathogen Omics Research Center_022), was isolated from soy sauce marinated crabs, and its genome and transcriptome were analyzed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms. FORC_022 did not include major virulence factors of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh). However, FORC_022 showed high cytotoxicity and had several V. parahaemolyticus islands (VPaIs) and other virulence factors, such as various secretion systems (types I,…

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