July 7, 2019  |  

Rhodobacter sp. Rb3, an aerobic anoxygenic phototroph which thrives in the polyextreme ecosystem of the Salar de Huasco, in the Chilean Altiplano.

The Salar de Huasco is an evaporitic basin located in the Chilean Altiplano, which presents extreme environmental conditions for life, i.e. high altitude (3800 m.a.s.l.), negative water balance, a wide salinity range, high daily temperature changes and the occurrence of the highest registered solar radiation on the planet (>?1200 W m-2). This ecosystem is considered as a natural laboratory to understand different adaptations of microorganisms to extreme conditions. Rhodobacter, an anoxygenic aerobic phototrophic bacterial genus, represents one of the most abundant groups reported based on taxonomic diversity surveys in this ecosystem. The bacterial mat isolate Rhodobacter sp. strain Rb3 was used to study adaptation mechanisms to stress-inducing factors potentially explaining its success in a polyextreme ecosystem. We found that the Rhodobacter sp. Rb3 genome was characterized by a high abundance of genes involved in stress tolerance and adaptation strategies, among which DNA repair and oxidative stress were the most conspicuous. Moreover, many other molecular mechanisms associated with oxidative stress, photooxidation and antioxidants; DNA repair and protection; motility, chemotaxis and biofilm synthesis; osmotic stress, metal, metalloid and toxic anions resistance; antimicrobial resistance and multidrug pumps; sporulation; cold shock and heat shock stress; mobile genetic elements and toxin-antitoxin system were detected and identified as potential survival mechanism features in Rhodobacter sp. Rb3. In total, these results reveal a wide set of strategies used by the isolate to adapt and thrive under environmental stress conditions as a model of polyextreme environmental resistome.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft whole-genome sequence of the fluorene-degrading Sphingobium sp. strain LB126, isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

We report here the draft whole-genome sequence of a fluorene-degrading bacterium, Sphingobium sp. strain LB126. The genes involved in the upper biodegradation pathway of fluorene are located on a plasmid, and the lower pathway that generates tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is initiated by the meta-cleavage of protocatechuic acid that is chromosomally encoded. Copyright © 2018 Augelletti et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence and annotation of the phytopathogenic Ralstonia pickettii (previously Burkholderia glumae) strain ICMP-8657.

Strain ICMP-8657 was formerly taxonomically classified as Burkholderia glumae and reported to be the producer of an antibacterial pyrazole derivative. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ICMP-8657, which failed to demonstrate the biosynthetic capacity to produce the stated antibacterial compound, leading to its taxonomic reclassification as Ralstonia pickettii ICMP-8657. Copyright © 2018 Paterson and Gross.


July 7, 2019  |  

Finished genome sequence of a polyurethane-degrading Pseudomonas isolate.

Pseudomonas sp. strain WP001 is a laboratory isolate capable of polyurethane polymer degradation and harbors a predicted lipase precursor gene. The genome of strain WP001 is 6.15?Mb in size and is composed of seven scaffolds with a G+C content of 60.54%. Strain WP001 is closely related to Pseudomonas fluorescens based on ribosomal DNA comparisons. Copyright © 2018 Stamps et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Lzh-T5, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with antimicrobial activity.

Pseudomonas chlororaphis Lzh-T5 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with antimicrobial activity isolated from tomato rhizosphere in the city of Dezhou, Shandong Province, China. Here, the draft genome sequence of P. chlororaphis Lzh-T5 is reported, and several functional genes related to antifungal antibiotics and siderophore biosynthesis have been found in the genome. Copyright © 2018 Li et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus strain TG1-6, a plant-beneficial rhizobacterium that is highly salt tolerant.

The complete genome sequence of Bacillus cereus strain TG1-6, which is a highly salt-tolerant rhizobacterium that enhances plant tolerance to drought stress, is reported here. The sequencing process was performed based on a combination of pyrosequencing and single-molecule sequencing. The complete genome is estimated to be approximately 5.42?Mb, containing a total of 5,610 predicted protein-coding DNA sequences (CDSs). Copyright © 2018 Vílchez et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Colwellia hornerae PAMC 20917, a cold-active enzyme-producing bacterium isolated from the Arctic Ocean sediment

Psychrophilic bacteria are considered a source of cold-active enzymes that can be used in industrial applications. The Arctic bacterium Colwellia hornerae PAMC 20917 strain has been isolated from the offshore sediment near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. The optimal growth temperature of the strain was 10?°C on marine agar. The cell lysate showed alkaline phosphatase activities. Analysis of the enzymatic properties showed that the alkaline phosphatase was cold-active and thermolabile. To explore useful cold-active industrial enzymes further, the entire genome of the PAMC 20917 strain was sequenced. The genome of the strain contained 4,684,314 nucleotides, with 37.87% G+C content. Genome mining analysis revealed that, in the complete genome sequence, three proteins were annotated as alkaline phosphatases. The genome of PAMC 20917 encodes cold shock proteins and an ice-binding protein that inhibits the growth of ice, allowing the bacterium to adapt to cold environments. This genome information may be useful for understanding mechanisms of adaptation to cold stress.


July 7, 2019  |  

Identification of Pseudomonas mosselii BS011 gene clusters required for suppression of Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Pseudomonas is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. Many members of this genus displayed remarkable physiological and metabolic activity against different plant pathogens. However, Pseudomonas mosselii has not yet been characterized in biocontrol against plant disease. Here we isolated a strain of P. mosselii BS011 from the rhizosphere soil of rice plants, and the isolate showed strong inhibitory activity against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Further we sequenced the complete genome of BS011, which consist of 5.75?Mb with a circular chromosome, 5,170 protein-coding genes, 23 rRNA and 78 tRNA operons. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that seven gene clusters may be involved in the biosynthesis of metabolites. Gene deletion experiments demonstrated that the gene cluster c-xtl is required for inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. Bioassay showed that the crude extract from BS011 fermentation sample significantly inhibited the development of M. oryzae at a concentration of 10?µg/ml. Besides, we illustrated that the crude extract of BS011 impaired the appressorial formation in a dose dependent manner. Collectively our results revealed that P. mosselii BS011 is a promising biocontrol agent and the gene cluster c-xtl is essential for inhibiting the development of M. oryzae. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.


July 7, 2019  |  

Short genome report of cellulose-producing commensal Escherichia coli 1094.

Bacterial surface colonization and biofilm formation often rely on the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix that mediates cell-cell and cell-surface contacts. In Escherichia coli and many Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria cellulose is often the main component of the extracellular matrix. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the cellulose producing strain E. coli 1094 and compare it with five other closely related genomes within E. coli phylogenetic group A. We present a comparative analysis of the regions encoding genes responsible for cellulose biosynthesis and discuss the changes that could have led to the loss of this important adaptive advantage in several E. coli strains. Data deposition: The annotated genome sequence has been deposited at the European Nucleotide Archive under the accession number PRJEB21000.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Gordonia sp. YC-JH1, a bacterium efficiently degrading a wide range of phthalic acid esters.

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a family of recalcitrant pollutants mainly used as plasticizer. The strain Gordonia sp.YC-JH1, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, is capable of efficiently degrading a wide range of PAEs. In order to pertinently investigate the genetic mechanism of PAEs catabolism by strain YC-JH1, its complete genome sequencing has been performed by SMRT sequencing technology. The genome comprises a circular chromosome and a plasmid with a size of 4,101,557 bp and 91,767 bp respectively. Based on the genome sequence, 3563 protein-coding genes are predicted, of which the genes responsible for PAEs degradation are identified, including the two genes of PAEs hydrolase and the gene clusters for phthalic acid and protocatechuic acid degradation. The genome information provides genomic basis of PAEs degradation to allow the complete metabolism of PAEs. The wide substrate spectrum and its genetic basis of this strain should expand its application potential for environments bioremediation, provide novel gene resources involved in PAEs degradation for biotechnology and gene engineering, and contribute to shed light on the mechanism of PAEs metabolism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.


July 7, 2019  |  

Probiotic genomes: Sequencing and annotation in the past decade

Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer many health benefits to the host when administered in adequate quantities. These health benefits have garnered much attention towards Probiotics and have given an impetus to their use as dietary supplements for the improvement of general health and as adjuvant therapies for certain diseases. The increased demand for probiotic products in the recent times has provided the thrust for probiotic research applied to several areas of human biology. The advances in genomic technologies have further facilitated the sequencing of the genomes of such probiotic bacteria and their genomic analyses to identify the genes that endow the beneficial effects they are known to exert. This work reviews the application of genomic strategies on probiotic bacteria, while providing the details about the probiotic strains whose genome sequences are available. It also consolidates the Genomic tools used for the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the probiotic genes and how it has helped in comparative genomic analyses.


July 7, 2019  |  

Thauera sinica sp. nov., a phenol derivative-degrading bacterium isolated from activated sludge.

A bacterial strain, K11T, capable of degrading phenol derivatives was isolated from activated sludge of a sewage treatment plant in China. This strain, which can degrade more than ten phenol derivatives, was identified as a Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, asporogenous, facultative anaerobic bacterium with a polar flagellum. The strain was found to grow in tryptic soy broth in the presence of 0-2.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-1%), at 4-43 °C (optimum 30-35 °C) and pH 4.5-10.5 (optimum 7.5-8). Comparative analysis of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this strain belongs to the genus Thauera. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was found to show high similarity (97.5%) to that of Thauera chlorobenzoica 3CB-1T, with lesser similarity to other recognised Thauera strains. The G+C content of the DNA of the strain was determined to be 67.8 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between K11T and Thauera aromatica DSM6984T was 10.4 ± 4.5%. The genomic OrthoANI values of K11T with the other nine type strains of genus Thauera were less than 81.1%. Chemotaxonomic analysis of strain K11T revealed that Q-8 is the predominant quinone; the polar lipids contain phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids and five uncharacterised lipids; the major cellular fatty acid was identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH; 45.9%), followed by C16:0 (20.5%) and C18:1 ?7c (15.8%). Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, DNA-DNA hybridisation, OrthoANI, chemotaxonomic analysis and results of the physiological and biochemical tests, a new species named Thauera sinica sp. nov. is proposed with strain K11T (= CGMCC 1.15731T = KACC 19216T) designated as the type strain.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas marina ECSMB14103, a mussel settlement-inducing bacterium isolated from the East China Sea

Pseudoalteromonas marina ECSMB14103, a strain isolated from natural multiple-species biofilms formed in the East China Sea, induces the settlement of larvae and plantigrades in Mytilus coruscus. Here, we report the complete genome of this strain; the genome is 3,441,076?bp in size, has a GC content of 39.90% and contains a total of 3200 predicted genes. These genomic data will provide significant datasets to help improve understanding of the physiological potential and molecular mechanisms of settlement induction by P. marina ECSMB14103.


July 7, 2019  |  

Emerging mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria and fungi: advances in the era of genomics.

Bacteria and fungi continue to develop new ways to adapt and survive the lethal or biostatic effects of antimicrobials through myriad mechanisms. Novel antibiotic resistance genes such as lsa(C), erm(44), VCC-1, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, bla KLUC-3 and bla KLUC-4 were discovered through comparative genomics and further functional studies. As well, mutations in genes that hitherto were unknown to confer resistance to antimicrobials, such as trm, PP2C, rpsJ, HSC82, FKS2 and Rv2887, were shown by genomics and transcomplementation assays to mediate antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida glabrata and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Thus, genomics, transcriptomics and metagenomics, coupled with functional studies are the future of antimicrobial resistance research and novel drug discovery or design.


July 7, 2019  |  

Isolation and identification of an anthracimycin analogue from Nocardiopsis kunsanensis, a halophile from a saltern, by genomic mining strategy.

Modern medicine is unthinkable without antibiotics; yet, growing issues with microbial drug resistance require intensified search for new active compounds. Natural products generated by Actinobacteria have been a rich source of candidate antibiotics, for example anthracimycin that, so far, is only known to be produced by Streptomyces species. Based on sequence similarity with the respective biosynthetic cluster, we sifted through available microbial genome data with the goal to find alternative anthracimycin-producing organisms. In this work, we report about the prediction and experimental verification of the production of anthracimycin derivatives by Nocardiopsis kunsanensis, a non-Streptomyces actinobacterial microorganism. We discovered N. kunsanensis to predominantly produce a new anthracimycin derivative with methyl group at C-8 and none at C-2, labeled anthracimycin BII-2619, besides a minor amount of anthracimycin. It displays activity against Gram-positive bacteria with similar low level of mammalian cytotoxicity as that of anthracimycin.


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