Analysis of resistance genes of clinical Pannonibacter phragmitetus strain 31801 by complete genome sequencing.
To clarify the resistance mechanisms of Pannonibacter phragmitetus 31801, isolated from the blood of a liver abscess patient, at the genomic level, we performed whole genomic sequencing using a PacBio RS II single-molecule real-time long-read sequencer. Bioinformatic analysis of the resulting sequence was then carried out to identify any possible resistance genes. Analyses included Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches against the Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database, ResFinder analysis of the genome sequence, and Resistance Gene Identifier analysis within the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Prophages, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and other putative virulence factors were also identified using PHAST, CRISPRfinder, and the Virulence Factors Database, respectively. The circular chromosome and single plasmid of P. phragmitetus 31801 contained multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including those coding for three different types of ß-lactamase [NPS ß-lactamase (EC 18.104.22.168), ß-lactamase class C, and a metal-dependent hydrolase of ß-lactamase superfamily I]. In addition, genes coding for subunits of several multidrug-resistance efflux pumps were identified, including those targeting macrolides (adeJ, cmeB), tetracycline (acrB, adeAB), fluoroquinolones (acrF, ceoB), and aminoglycosides (acrD, amrB, ceoB, mexY, smeB). However, apart from the tripartite macrolide efflux pump macAB-tolC, the genome did not appear to contain the complete complement of subunit genes required for production of most of the major multidrug-resistance efflux pumps.