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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A new standard for crustacean genomes: The highly contiguous, annotated genome assembly of the clam shrimp Eulimnadia texana reveals HOX gene order and identifies the sex chromosome.

Vernal pool clam shrimp (Eulimnadia texana) are a promising model system due to their ease of lab culture, short generation time, modest sized genome, a somewhat rare stable androdioecious sex determination system, and a requirement to reproduce via desiccated diapaused eggs. We generated a highly contiguous genome assembly using 46× of PacBio long read data and 216× of Illumina short reads, and annotated using Illumina RNAseq obtained from adult males or hermaphrodites. Of the 120?Mb genome 85% is contained in the largest eight contigs, the smallest of which is 4.6?Mb. The assembly contains 98% of transcripts predicted via RNAseq. This…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-quality assembly of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus genome and transcriptome reveals a wide range of novel allergens.

House dust mites (HDM) are a predominant source of inhalant allergens that attribute to over 50% of worldwide allergy cases, while the full spectrum of HDM allergens remains unknown. Here we sequenced a high-quality genome of Dermatophagoides (D.) pteronyssinus to find known canonical allergens and allergen orthologs inferred from D. farinae genome.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A hybrid-hierarchical genome assembly strategy to sequence the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei.

For more than 25 years, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei has aggressively invaded South American freshwaters, having travelled more than 5,000 km upstream across five countries. Along the way, the golden mussel has outcompeted native species and economically harmed aquaculture, hydroelectric powers, and ship transit. We have sequenced the complete genome of the golden mussel to understand the molecular basis of its invasiveness and search for ways to control it.We assembled the 1.6 Gb genome into 20548 scaffolds with an N50 length of 312 Kb using a hybrid and hierarchical assembly strategy from short and long DNA reads and transcriptomes.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The sea lamprey germline genome provides insights into programmed genome rearrangement and vertebrate evolution.

The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) serves as a comparative model for reconstructing vertebrate evolution. To enable more informed analyses, we developed a new assembly of the lamprey germline genome that integrates several complementary data sets. Analysis of this highly contiguous (chromosome-scale) assembly shows that both chromosomal and whole-genome duplications have played significant roles in the evolution of ancestral vertebrate and lamprey genomes, including chromosomes that carry the six lamprey HOX clusters. The assembly also contains several hundred genes that are reproducibly eliminated from somatic cells during early development in lamprey. Comparative analyses show that gnathostome (mouse) homologs of these genes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T, a planctomycete with confirmed chitinolytic capability.

Members of the bacterial order Planctomycetales have often been observed in associations with Crustacea. The ability to degrade chitin, however, has never been reported for any of the cultured planctomycetes although utilization of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is well recognized for these bacteria. Here, we demonstrate the chitinolytic capability of a member of the family Gemmataceae, Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T, which was isolated from a peat bog. As revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis of chitin-amended peat, the pool of 16S rRNA reads from F. ruber increased in response to chitin availability. Strain SP5T displayed only weak growth…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Egyptian rousette genome reveals unexpected features of bat antiviral immunity.

Bats harbor many viruses asymptomatically, including several notorious for causing extreme virulence in humans. To identify differences between antiviral mechanisms in humans and bats, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed the genome of Rousettus aegyptiacus, a natural reservoir of Marburg virus and the only known reservoir for any filovirus. We found an expanded and diversified KLRC/KLRD family of natural killer cell receptors, MHC class I genes, and type I interferons, which dramatically differ from their functional counterparts in other mammals. Such concerted evolution of key components of bat immunity is strongly suggestive of novel modes of antiviral defense. An evaluation of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A reference genome of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

The European beech is arguably the most important climax broad-leaved tree species in Central Europe, widely planted for its valuable wood. Here, we report the 542 Mb draft genome sequence of an up to 300-year-old individual (Bhaga) from an undisturbed stand in the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park in central Germany.Using a hybrid assembly approach, Illumina reads with short- and long-insert libraries, coupled with long Pacific Biosciences reads, we obtained an assembled genome size of 542 Mb, in line with flow cytometric genome size estimation. The largest scaffold was of 1.15 Mb, the N50 length was 145 kb, and the L50 count…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Opposite polarity monospore genome de novo sequencing and comparative analysis reveal the possible heterothallic life cycle of Morchella importuna.

Morchella is a popular edible fungus worldwide due to its rich nutrition and unique flavor. Many research efforts were made on the domestication and cultivation of Morchella all over the world. In recent years, the cultivation of Morchella was successfully commercialized in China. However, the biology is not well understood, which restricts the further development of the morel fungus cultivation industry. In this paper, we performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the genomes of two monospores with a different mating type (M04M24 and M04M26) isolated from the commercially cultivated strain M04. Gene annotation and comparative genome analysis were performed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The chromosome-level genome assemblies of two rattans (Calamus simplicifolius and Daemonorops jenkinsiana).

Calamus simplicifolius and Daemonorops jenkinsiana are two representative rattans, the most significant material sources for the rattan industry. However, the lack of reference genome sequences is a major obstacle for basic and applied biology on rattan.We produced two chromosome-level genome assemblies of C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana using Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, and Hi-C sequencing data. A total of ~730 Gb and ~682 Gb of raw data covered the predicted genome lengths (~1.98 Gb of C. simplicifolius and ~1.61 Gb of D. jenkinsiana) to ~372 × and ~426 × read depths, respectively. The two de novo genome assemblies, ~1.94 Gb and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome assembly of the invasive cane toad, Rhinella marina.

The cane toad (Rhinella marina formerly Bufo marinus) is a species native to Central and South America that has spread across many regions of the globe. Cane toads are known for their rapid adaptation and deleterious impacts on native fauna in invaded regions. However, despite an iconic status, there are major gaps in our understanding of cane toad genetics. The availability of a genome would help to close these gaps and accelerate cane toad research.We report a draft genome assembly for R. marina, the first of its kind for the Bufonidae family. We used a combination of long-read Pacific Biosciences…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Structural variants exhibit allelic heterogeneity and shape variation in complex traits

Despite extensive effort to reveal the genetic basis of complex phenotypic variation, studies typically explain only a fraction of trait heritability. It has been hypothesized that individually rare hidden structural variants (SVs) could account for a significant fraction of variation in complex traits. To investigate this hypothesis, we assembled 14 Drosophila melanogaster genomes and systematically identified more than 20,000 euchromatic SVs, of which ~40% are invisible to high specificity short read genotyping approaches. SVs are common in Drosophila genes, with almost one third of diploid individuals harboring an SV in genes larger than 5kb, and nearly a quarter harboring multiple…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Deletions linked to PROG1 gene participate in plant architecture domestication in Asian and African rice.

Improving the yield by modifying plant architecture was a key step during crop domestication. Here, we show that a 110-kb deletion on the short arm of chromosome 7 in Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), which is closely linked to the previously identified PROSTRATE GROWTH 1 (PROG1) gene, harbors a tandem repeat of seven zinc-finger genes. Three of these genes regulate the plant architecture, suggesting that the deletion also promoted the critical transition from the prostrate growth and low yield of wild rice (O. rufipogon) to the erect growth and high yield of Asian cultivated rice. We refer to this locus…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequence of the brown rot fungal pathogen Monilinia fructigena.

Monilinia fructigena (phylum Ascomycota, family Sclerotiniaceae) is a plant pathogen that causes brown rot and blossom blight in pome fruit and stone fruit of the Rosaceae family, which can cause significant losses in the field and mainly postharvest. The aim of this study was to create a high-quality draft of the M. fructigena genome assembly and annotation that provides better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen and its interactions with the host(s) and will thus improve brown rot management.We report here on the genome sequence of M. fructigena strain Mfrg269 that was collected from plum in southern Italy. This is…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Physiological genomics of dietary adaptation in a marine herbivorous fish

Adopting a new diet is a significant evolutionary change and can profoundly affect an animaltextquoterights physiology, biochemistry, ecology, and its genome. To study this evolutionary transition, we investigated the physiology and genomics of digestion of a derived herbivorous fish, the monkeyface prickleback (Cebidichthys violaceus). We sequenced and assembled its genome and digestive transcriptome and revealed the molecular changes related to important dietary enzymes, finding abundant evidence for adaptation at the molecular level. In this species, two gene families experienced expansion in copy number and adaptive amino acid substitutions. These families, amylase, and bile salt activated lipase, are involved digestion of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome sequencing of Chinese yellow catfish provides a valuable genetic resource for high-throughput identification of toxin genes.

Naturally derived toxins from animals are good raw materials for drug development. As a representative venomous teleost, Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) can provide valuable resources for studies on toxin genes. Its venom glands are located in the pectoral and dorsal fins. Although with such interesting biologic traits and great value in economy, Chinese yellow catfish is still lacking a sequenced genome. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of Chinese yellow catfish using a combination of next-generation Illumina and third-generation PacBio sequencing platforms. The final assembly reached 714 Mb, with a contig N50 of 970 kb and a scaffold…

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