September 22, 2019  |  

A new standard for crustacean genomes: The highly contiguous, annotated genome assembly of the clam shrimp Eulimnadia texana reveals HOX gene order and identifies the sex chromosome.

Vernal pool clam shrimp (Eulimnadia texana) are a promising model system due to their ease of lab culture, short generation time, modest sized genome, a somewhat rare stable androdioecious sex determination system, and a requirement to reproduce via desiccated diapaused eggs. We generated a highly contiguous genome assembly using 46× of PacBio long read data and 216× of Illumina short reads, and annotated using Illumina RNAseq obtained from adult males or hermaphrodites. Of the 120?Mb genome 85% is contained in the largest eight contigs, the smallest of which is 4.6?Mb. The assembly contains 98% of transcripts predicted via RNAseq. This assembly is qualitatively different from scaffolded Illumina assemblies: It is produced from long reads that contain sequence data along their entire length, and is thus gap free. The contiguity of the assembly allows us to order the HOX genes within the genome, identifying two loci that contain HOX gene orthologs, and which approximately maintain the order observed in other arthropods. We identified a partial duplication of the Antennapedia complex adjacent to the few genes homologous to the Bithorax locus. Because the sex chromosome of an androdioecious species is of special interest, we used existing allozyme and microsatellite markers to identify the E. texana sex chromosome, and find that it comprises nearly half of the genome of this species. Linkage patterns indicate that recombination is extremely rare and perhaps absent in hermaphrodites, and as a result the location of the sex determining locus will be difficult to refine using recombination mapping.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


September 22, 2019  |  

High-quality assembly of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus genome and transcriptome reveals a wide range of novel allergens.

House dust mites (HDM) are a predominant source of inhalant allergens that attribute to over 50% of worldwide allergy cases, while the full spectrum of HDM allergens remains unknown. Here we sequenced a high-quality genome of Dermatophagoides (D.) pteronyssinus to find known canonical allergens and allergen orthologs inferred from D. farinae genome.


September 22, 2019  |  

A hybrid-hierarchical genome assembly strategy to sequence the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei.

For more than 25 years, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei has aggressively invaded South American freshwaters, having travelled more than 5,000 km upstream across five countries. Along the way, the golden mussel has outcompeted native species and economically harmed aquaculture, hydroelectric powers, and ship transit. We have sequenced the complete genome of the golden mussel to understand the molecular basis of its invasiveness and search for ways to control it.We assembled the 1.6 Gb genome into 20548 scaffolds with an N50 length of 312 Kb using a hybrid and hierarchical assembly strategy from short and long DNA reads and transcriptomes. A total of 60717 coding genes were inferred from a customized transcriptome-trained AUGUSTUS run. We also compared predicted protein sets with those of complete molluscan genomes, revealing an exacerbation of protein-binding domains in L. fortunei. Conclusions: We built one of the best bivalve genome assemblies available using a cost-effective approach using Illumina pair-end, mate pair, and PacBio long reads. We expect that the continuous and careful annotation of L. fortunei’s genome will contribute to the investigation of bivalve genetics, evolution, and invasiveness, as well as to the development of biotechnological tools for aquatic pest control.© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.


September 22, 2019  |  

The sea lamprey germline genome provides insights into programmed genome rearrangement and vertebrate evolution.

The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) serves as a comparative model for reconstructing vertebrate evolution. To enable more informed analyses, we developed a new assembly of the lamprey germline genome that integrates several complementary data sets. Analysis of this highly contiguous (chromosome-scale) assembly shows that both chromosomal and whole-genome duplications have played significant roles in the evolution of ancestral vertebrate and lamprey genomes, including chromosomes that carry the six lamprey HOX clusters. The assembly also contains several hundred genes that are reproducibly eliminated from somatic cells during early development in lamprey. Comparative analyses show that gnathostome (mouse) homologs of these genes are frequently marked by polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) in embryonic stem cells, suggesting overlaps in the regulatory logic of somatic DNA elimination and bivalent states that are regulated by early embryonic PRCs. This new assembly will enhance diverse studies that are informed by lampreys’ unique biology and evolutionary/comparative perspective.


September 22, 2019  |  

Genome analysis of Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T, a planctomycete with confirmed chitinolytic capability.

Members of the bacterial order Planctomycetales have often been observed in associations with Crustacea. The ability to degrade chitin, however, has never been reported for any of the cultured planctomycetes although utilization of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is well recognized for these bacteria. Here, we demonstrate the chitinolytic capability of a member of the family Gemmataceae, Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T, which was isolated from a peat bog. As revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis of chitin-amended peat, the pool of 16S rRNA reads from F. ruber increased in response to chitin availability. Strain SP5T displayed only weak growth on amorphous chitin as a sole source of carbon but grew well with chitin as a source of nitrogen. The genome of F. ruber SP5T is 12.364 Mb in size and is the largest among all currently determined planctomycete genomes. It encodes several enzymes putatively involved in chitin degradation, including two chitinases affiliated with the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family GH18, GH20 family ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and the complete set of enzymes required for utilization of GlcNAc. The gene encoding one of the predicted chitinases was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the endochitinase activity of the recombinant enzyme was confirmed. The genome also contains genes required for the assembly of type IV pili, which may be used to adhere to chitin and possibly other biopolymers. The ability to use chitin as a source of nitrogen is of special importance for planctomycetes that inhabit N-depleted ombrotrophic wetlands. IMPORTANCE Planctomycetes represent an important part of the microbial community in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, but their potential functions in these ecosystems remain poorly understood. This study reports the presence of chitinolytic potential in one of the recently described peat-inhabiting members of the family Gemmataceae, Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T This planctomycete uses chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls and exoskeletons of peat-inhabiting arthropods, as a source of nitrogen in N-depleted ombrotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. This study reports the chitin-degrading capability of representatives of the order Planctomycetales. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.


September 22, 2019  |  

The Egyptian rousette genome reveals unexpected features of bat antiviral immunity.

Bats harbor many viruses asymptomatically, including several notorious for causing extreme virulence in humans. To identify differences between antiviral mechanisms in humans and bats, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed the genome of Rousettus aegyptiacus, a natural reservoir of Marburg virus and the only known reservoir for any filovirus. We found an expanded and diversified KLRC/KLRD family of natural killer cell receptors, MHC class I genes, and type I interferons, which dramatically differ from their functional counterparts in other mammals. Such concerted evolution of key components of bat immunity is strongly suggestive of novel modes of antiviral defense. An evaluation of the theoretical function of these genes suggests that an inhibitory immune state may exist in bats. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that tolerance of viral infection, rather than enhanced potency of antiviral defenses, may be a key mechanism by which bats asymptomatically host viruses that are pathogenic in humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

A reference genome of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

The European beech is arguably the most important climax broad-leaved tree species in Central Europe, widely planted for its valuable wood. Here, we report the 542 Mb draft genome sequence of an up to 300-year-old individual (Bhaga) from an undisturbed stand in the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park in central Germany.Using a hybrid assembly approach, Illumina reads with short- and long-insert libraries, coupled with long Pacific Biosciences reads, we obtained an assembled genome size of 542 Mb, in line with flow cytometric genome size estimation. The largest scaffold was of 1.15 Mb, the N50 length was 145 kb, and the L50 count was 983. The assembly contained 0.12% of Ns. A Benchmarking with Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) analysis retrieved 94% complete BUSCO genes, well in the range of other high-quality draft genomes of trees. A total of 62,012 protein-coding genes were predicted, assisted by transcriptome sequencing. In addition, we are reporting an efficient method for extracting high-molecular-weight DNA from dormant buds, by which contamination by environmental bacteria and fungi was kept at a minimum.The assembled genome will be a valuable resource and reference for future population genomics studies on the evolution and past climate change adaptation of beech and will be helpful for identifying genes, e.g., involved in drought tolerance, in order to select and breed individuals to adapt forestry to climate change in Europe. A continuously updated genome browser and download page can be accessed from beechgenome.net, which will include future genome versions of the reference individual Bhaga, as new sequencing approaches develop.


September 22, 2019  |  

Opposite polarity monospore genome de novo sequencing and comparative analysis reveal the possible heterothallic life cycle of Morchella importuna.

Morchella is a popular edible fungus worldwide due to its rich nutrition and unique flavor. Many research efforts were made on the domestication and cultivation of Morchella all over the world. In recent years, the cultivation of Morchella was successfully commercialized in China. However, the biology is not well understood, which restricts the further development of the morel fungus cultivation industry. In this paper, we performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the genomes of two monospores with a different mating type (M04M24 and M04M26) isolated from the commercially cultivated strain M04. Gene annotation and comparative genome analysis were performed to study differences in CAZyme (Carbohydrate-active enzyme) enzyme content, transcription factors, duplicated sequences, structure of mating type sites, and differences at the gene and functional levels between the two monospore strains of M. importuna. Results showed that the de novo assembled haploid M04M24 and M04M26 genomes were 48.98 and 51.07 Mb, respectively. A complete fine physical map of M. importuna was obtained from genome coverage and gene completeness evaluation. A total of 10,852 and 10,902 common genes and 667 and 868 endemic genes were identified from the two monospore strains, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO) and KAAS (KEGG Automatic Annotation Serve) enrichment analyses showed that the endemic genes performed different functions. The two monospore strains had 99.22% collinearity with each other, accompanied with certain position and rearrangement events. Analysis of complete mating-type loci revealed that the two monospore M. importuna strains contained an independent mating-type structure and remained conserved in sequence and location. The phylogenetic and divergence time of M. importuna was analyzed at the whole-genome level for the first time. The bifurcation time of morel and tuber was estimated to be 201.14 million years ago (Mya); the two monospore strains with a different mating type represented the evolution of different nuclei, and the single copy homologous genes between them were also different due to a genetic differentiation distance about 0.65 Mya. Compared with truffles, M. importuna had an extension of 28 clusters of orthologous genes (COGs) and a contraction of two COGs. The two different polar nuclei with different degrees of contraction and expansion suggested that they might have undergone different evolutionary processes. The different mating-type structures, together with the functional clustering and enrichment analysis results of the endemic genes of the two different polar nuclei, imply that M. importuna might be a heterothallic fungus and the interaction between the endemic genes may be necessary for its complete life history. Studies on the genome of M. importuna facilitate a better understanding of morel biology and evolution.


September 22, 2019  |  

The chromosome-level genome assemblies of two rattans (Calamus simplicifolius and Daemonorops jenkinsiana).

Calamus simplicifolius and Daemonorops jenkinsiana are two representative rattans, the most significant material sources for the rattan industry. However, the lack of reference genome sequences is a major obstacle for basic and applied biology on rattan.We produced two chromosome-level genome assemblies of C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana using Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, and Hi-C sequencing data. A total of ~730 Gb and ~682 Gb of raw data covered the predicted genome lengths (~1.98 Gb of C. simplicifolius and ~1.61 Gb of D. jenkinsiana) to ~372 × and ~426 × read depths, respectively. The two de novo genome assemblies, ~1.94 Gb and ~1.58 Gb, were generated with scaffold N50s of ~160 Mb and ~119 Mb in C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana, respectively. The C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana genomes were predicted to harbor ?51,235 and ?53,342 intact protein-coding gene models, respectively. Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs evaluation demonstrated that genome completeness reached 96.4% and 91.3% in the C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana genomes, respectively. Genome evolution showed that four Arecaceae plants clustered together, and the divergence time between the two rattans was ~19.3 million years ago. Additionally, we identified 193 and 172 genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in the C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana genomes, respectively.We present the first de novo assemblies of two rattan genomes (C. simplicifolius and D. jenkinsiana). These data will not only provide a fundamental resource for functional genomics, particularly in promoting germplasm utilization for breeding, but also serve as reference genomes for comparative studies between and among different species.


September 22, 2019  |  

Draft genome assembly of the invasive cane toad, Rhinella marina.

The cane toad (Rhinella marina formerly Bufo marinus) is a species native to Central and South America that has spread across many regions of the globe. Cane toads are known for their rapid adaptation and deleterious impacts on native fauna in invaded regions. However, despite an iconic status, there are major gaps in our understanding of cane toad genetics. The availability of a genome would help to close these gaps and accelerate cane toad research.We report a draft genome assembly for R. marina, the first of its kind for the Bufonidae family. We used a combination of long-read Pacific Biosciences RS II and short-read Illumina HiSeq X sequencing to generate 359.5 Gb of raw sequence data. The final hybrid assembly of 31,392 scaffolds was 2.55 Gb in length with a scaffold N50 of 168 kb. BUSCO analysis revealed that the assembly included full length or partial fragments of 90.6% of tetrapod universal single-copy orthologs (n = 3950), illustrating that the gene-containing regions have been well assembled. Annotation predicted 25,846 protein coding genes with similarity to known proteins in Swiss-Prot. Repeat sequences were estimated to account for 63.9% of the assembly.The R. marina draft genome assembly will be an invaluable resource that can be used to further probe the biology of this invasive species. Future analysis of the genome will provide insights into cane toad evolution and enrich our understanding of their interplay with the ecosystem at large.


September 22, 2019  |  

Structural variants exhibit allelic heterogeneity and shape variation in complex traits

Despite extensive effort to reveal the genetic basis of complex phenotypic variation, studies typically explain only a fraction of trait heritability. It has been hypothesized that individually rare hidden structural variants (SVs) could account for a significant fraction of variation in complex traits. To investigate this hypothesis, we assembled 14 Drosophila melanogaster genomes and systematically identified more than 20,000 euchromatic SVs, of which ~40% are invisible to high specificity short read genotyping approaches. SVs are common in Drosophila genes, with almost one third of diploid individuals harboring an SV in genes larger than 5kb, and nearly a quarter harboring multiple SVs in genes larger than 10kb. We show that SV alleles are rarer than amino acid polymorphisms, implying that they are more strongly deleterious. A number of functionally important genes harbor previously hidden structural variants that likely affect complex phenotypes (e.g., Cyp6g1, Drsl5, Cyp28d1&2, InR, and Gss1&2). Furthermore, SVs are overrepresented in quantitative trait locus candidate genes from eight Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource (DSPR) mapping experiments. We conclude that SVs are pervasive in genomes, are frequently present as heterogeneous allelic series, and can act as rare alleles of large effect.


September 22, 2019  |  

Deletions linked to PROG1 gene participate in plant architecture domestication in Asian and African rice.

Improving the yield by modifying plant architecture was a key step during crop domestication. Here, we show that a 110-kb deletion on the short arm of chromosome 7 in Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), which is closely linked to the previously identified PROSTRATE GROWTH 1 (PROG1) gene, harbors a tandem repeat of seven zinc-finger genes. Three of these genes regulate the plant architecture, suggesting that the deletion also promoted the critical transition from the prostrate growth and low yield of wild rice (O. rufipogon) to the erect growth and high yield of Asian cultivated rice. We refer to this locus as RICE PLANT ARCHITECTURE DOMESTICATION (RPAD). Further, a similar but independent 113-kb deletion is detected at the RPAD locus in African cultivated rice. These results indicate that the deletions, eliminating a tandem repeat of zinc-finger genes, may have been involved in the parallel domestication of plant architecture in Asian and African rice.


September 22, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the brown rot fungal pathogen Monilinia fructigena.

Monilinia fructigena (phylum Ascomycota, family Sclerotiniaceae) is a plant pathogen that causes brown rot and blossom blight in pome fruit and stone fruit of the Rosaceae family, which can cause significant losses in the field and mainly postharvest. The aim of this study was to create a high-quality draft of the M. fructigena genome assembly and annotation that provides better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen and its interactions with the host(s) and will thus improve brown rot management.We report here on the genome sequence of M. fructigena strain Mfrg269 that was collected from plum in southern Italy. This is assembled into 131 scaffolds, with a total size of 43.125 Mb, with 9960 unique protein-coding genes. The novel genomic resources allow improved genomic comparisons among the most important pathogens belonging to the Monilinia genus, with the aim being to improve the knowledge of their plant-pathogen interactions, population biology, and control.


September 22, 2019  |  

Physiological genomics of dietary adaptation in a marine herbivorous fish

Adopting a new diet is a significant evolutionary change and can profoundly affect an animaltextquoterights physiology, biochemistry, ecology, and its genome. To study this evolutionary transition, we investigated the physiology and genomics of digestion of a derived herbivorous fish, the monkeyface prickleback (Cebidichthys violaceus). We sequenced and assembled its genome and digestive transcriptome and revealed the molecular changes related to important dietary enzymes, finding abundant evidence for adaptation at the molecular level. In this species, two gene families experienced expansion in copy number and adaptive amino acid substitutions. These families, amylase, and bile salt activated lipase, are involved digestion of carbohydrates and lipids, respectively. Both show elevated levels of gene expression and increased enzyme activity. Because carbohydrates are abundant in the pricklebacktextquoterights diet and lipids are rare, these findings suggest that such dietary specialization involves both exploiting abundant resources and scavenging rare ones, especially essential nutrients, like essential fatty acids.


September 22, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequencing of Chinese yellow catfish provides a valuable genetic resource for high-throughput identification of toxin genes.

Naturally derived toxins from animals are good raw materials for drug development. As a representative venomous teleost, Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) can provide valuable resources for studies on toxin genes. Its venom glands are located in the pectoral and dorsal fins. Although with such interesting biologic traits and great value in economy, Chinese yellow catfish is still lacking a sequenced genome. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of Chinese yellow catfish using a combination of next-generation Illumina and third-generation PacBio sequencing platforms. The final assembly reached 714 Mb, with a contig N50 of 970 kb and a scaffold N50 of 3.65 Mb, respectively. We also annotated 21,562 protein-coding genes, in which 97.59% were assigned at least one functional annotation. Based on the genome sequence, we analyzed toxin genes in Chinese yellow catfish. Finally, we identified 207 toxin genes and classified them into three major groups. Interestingly, we also expanded a previously reported sex-related region (to ˜6 Mb) in the achieved genome assembly, and localized two important toxin genes within this region. In summary, we assembled a high-quality genome of Chinese yellow catfish and performed high-throughput identification of toxin genes from a genomic view. Therefore, the limited number of toxin sequences in public databases will be remarkably improved once we integrate multi-omics data from more and more sequenced species.


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