Morchella is a popular edible fungus worldwide due to its rich nutrition and unique flavor. Many research efforts were made on the domestication and cultivation of Morchella all over the world. In recent years, the cultivation of Morchella was successfully commercialized in China. However, the biology is not well understood, which restricts the further development of the morel fungus cultivation industry. In this paper, we performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the genomes of two monospores with a different mating type (M04M24 and M04M26) isolated from the commercially cultivated strain M04. Gene annotation and comparative genome analysis were performed to study differences in CAZyme (Carbohydrate-active enzyme) enzyme content, transcription factors, duplicated sequences, structure of mating type sites, and differences at the gene and functional levels between the two monospore strains of M. importuna. Results showed that the de novo assembled haploid M04M24 and M04M26 genomes were 48.98 and 51.07 Mb, respectively. A complete fine physical map of M. importuna was obtained from genome coverage and gene completeness evaluation. A total of 10,852 and 10,902 common genes and 667 and 868 endemic genes were identified from the two monospore strains, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO) and KAAS (KEGG Automatic Annotation Serve) enrichment analyses showed that the endemic genes performed different functions. The two monospore strains had 99.22% collinearity with each other, accompanied with certain position and rearrangement events. Analysis of complete mating-type loci revealed that the two monospore M. importuna strains contained an independent mating-type structure and remained conserved in sequence and location. The phylogenetic and divergence time of M. importuna was analyzed at the whole-genome level for the first time. The bifurcation time of morel and tuber was estimated to be 201.14 million years ago (Mya); the two monospore strains with a different mating type represented the evolution of different nuclei, and the single copy homologous genes between them were also different due to a genetic differentiation distance about 0.65 Mya. Compared with truffles, M. importuna had an extension of 28 clusters of orthologous genes (COGs) and a contraction of two COGs. The two different polar nuclei with different degrees of contraction and expansion suggested that they might have undergone different evolutionary processes. The different mating-type structures, together with the functional clustering and enrichment analysis results of the endemic genes of the two different polar nuclei, imply that M. importuna might be a heterothallic fungus and the interaction between the endemic genes may be necessary for its complete life history. Studies on the genome of M. importuna facilitate a better understanding of morel biology and evolution.
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences