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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacteroides dorei dominates gut microbiome prior to autoimmunity in Finnish children at high risk for type 1 diabetes.

The incidence of the autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), has increased dramatically over the last half century in many developed countries and is particularly high in Finland and other Nordic countries. Along with genetic predisposition, environmental factors are thought to play a critical role in this increase. As with other autoimmune diseases, the gut microbiome is thought to play a potential role in controlling progression to T1D in children with high genetic risk, but we know little about how the gut microbiome develops in children with high genetic risk for T1D. In this study, the early development of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

How far can mitochondrial DNA drive the disease?

Mitochondria are one of the dominant drivers for producing cellular energy to meet a large number of biological functions, of which the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the control center of energetic driving force and the dominant driver of mitochondrial molecular diversification. mtDNA transcription generates the necessary RNAs to regulate the extent and nature of mtRNA post-transcriptional modifications and the activity of nucleus-encoded enzymes. With a special focus on mtDNA, the current volume aims to overview the biology and structures of mtDNA, regulatory roles of mtDNA in lung diseases, or involvement of mtDNA in metabolism. We explore the significance of mtDNA…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Cow-to-mouse fecal transplantations suggest intestinal microbiome as one cause of mastitis.

Mastitis, which affects nearly all lactating mammals including human, is generally thought to be caused by local infection of the mammary glands. For treatment, antibiotics are commonly prescribed, which however are of concern in both treatment efficacy and neonate safety. Here, using bovine mastitis which is the most costly disease in the dairy industry as a model, we showed that intestinal microbiota alone can lead to mastitis.Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from mastitis, but not healthy cows, to germ-free (GF) mice resulted in mastitis symptoms in mammary gland and inflammations in serum, spleen, and colon. Probiotic intake in parallel with FMT…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Soil microclimate changes affect soil fungal communities in a Mediterranean pine forest.

Soil microclimate is a potentially important regulator of the composition of plant-associated fungal communities in climates with significant drought periods. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil fungal communities in a Mediterranean Pinus pinaster forest in relation to soil moisture and temperature. Fungal communities in 336 soil samples collected monthly over 1 year from 28 long-term experimental plots were assessed by PacBio sequencing of ITS2 amplicons. Total fungal biomass was estimated by analysing ergosterol. Community changes were analysed in the context of functional traits. Soil fungal biomass was lowest during summer and late winter and highest during autumn, concurrent with…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Fungal community shifts underpin declining mycelial production and turnover across a Pinus sylvestris chronosequence

Fungi play critical roles in ecosystem processes such as decomposition and nutrient cycling, but have also been highlighted as significant contributors to organic matter build-up in boreal forest soils. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelial biomass and necromass dynamics have recently been highlighted as essential for regulating build-up of soil organic matter. Understanding the extent to which shifts in mycelial community or growth trait composition cause changes in mycelial production and turnover over ecological gradients would aid a mechanistic understanding of these important processes at an ecosystem scale. Here, we test the hypotheses that shifting species and mycelial trait (exploration type) composition within…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The microbiota of freshwater fish and freshwater niches contain omega-3 producing Shewanella species.

Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Full-length transcriptome sequences and the identification of putative genes for flavonoid biosynthesis in safflower.

The flower of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the ability to improve cerebral blood flow. Flavonoids are the primary bioactive components in safflower, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. Previous studies mostly used second-generation sequencing platforms to survey the putative flavonoid biosynthesis genes. For a better understanding of transcription data and the putative genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in safflower, we carry our study.High-quality RNA was extracted from six types of safflower tissue. The RNAs of different tissues were mixed equally and used for multiple size-fractionated libraries (1-2, 2-3 and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

RNAi-based treatment of chronically infected patients and chimpanzees reveals that integrated hepatitis B virus DNA is a source of HBsAg.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern worldwide, frequently leading to liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence suggests that high viral antigen load may play a role in chronicity. Production of viral proteins is thought to depend on transcription of viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). In a human clinical trial with an RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic targeting HBV transcripts, ARC-520, HBV S antigen (HBsAg) was strongly reduced in treatment-naïve patients positive for HBV e antigen (HBeAg) but was reduced significantly less in patients who were HBeAg-negative or had received long-term therapy with nucleos(t)ide…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptome profiling using Illumina- and SMRT-based RNA-seq of hot pepper for in-depth understanding of genes involved in CMV infection.

Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is becoming an increasingly important vegetable crop in the world. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive virus that can cause leaf distortion and fruit lesions, affecting pepper production. However, studies on the response to CMV infection in pepper at the transcriptional level are limited. In this study, the transcript profiles of pepper leaves after CMV infection were investigated using Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 2143 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at five different stages. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEGs were involved in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Different next generation sequencing platforms produce different microbial profiles and diversity in cystic fibrosis sputum.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent lung infections. Studies of the lung microbiome have shown an association between decreasing diversity and progressive disease. 454 pyrosequencing has frequently been used to study the lung microbiome in CF, but will no longer be supported. We sought to identify the benefits and drawbacks of using two state-of-the-art next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, MiSeq and PacBio RSII, to characterize the CF lung microbiome. Each has its advantages and limitations.Twelve samples of extracted bacterial DNA were sequenced on both MiSeq and PacBio NGS platforms. DNA was amplified for the V4…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Generation and comparative analysis of full-length transcriptomes in sweetpotato and its putative wild ancestor I. trifida.

Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is one of the most important crops in many developing countries and provides a candidate source of bioenergy. However, neither high-quality reference genome nor large-scale full-length cDNA sequences for this outcrossing hexaploid are still lacking, which in turn impedes progress in research studies in sweetpotato functional genomics and molecular breeding. In this study, we apply a combination of second- and third-generation sequencing technologies to sequence full-length transcriptomes in sweetpotato and its putative ancestor I. trifida. In total, we obtained 53,861/51,184 high-quality transcripts, which includes 34,963/33,637 putative full-length cDNA sequences, from sweetpotato/I. trifida. Amongst, we identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Novel molecules lncRNAs, tRFs and circRNAs deciphered from next-generation sequencing/RNA sequencing: computational databases and tools.

Powerful next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, more specifically RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), have been pivotal toward the detection and analysis and hypotheses generation of novel biomolecules, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). Experimental validation of the occurrence of these biomolecules inside the cell has been reported. Their differential expression and functionally important role in several cancers types as well as other diseases such as Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular diseases have garnered interest toward further studies in this research arena. In this review, starting from a brief relevant introduction to NGS and RNA-seq and the expression and role of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Functional mitochondria in health and disease.

The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell. Increased demand is met by mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion of individual mitochondria into dynamic networks, whereas a decrease in demand results in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas Parafulva PRS09-11288, a biocontrol strain produces the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid.

Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus, which can infect a wide range of economic crops including rice. In this case, biological control of this pathogen is one of the fundmental way to effectively control this pathogen. The Pseudomonas parafulva strain PRS09-11288 was isolated from rice rhizosphere and shows biocontrol ability against R. solani. Here, we analyzed the P. parafulva genome, which is ~?4.7 Mb, with 4310 coding sequences, 76 tRNAs, and 7 rRNAs. Genome analysis identified a phenazine biosynthetic pathway, which can produce antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). This compound is responsible for biocontrol ability against R. solani Kühn, which is…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics reveals new single-nucleotide polymorphisms that can assist in identification of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli.

Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been involved in Crohn’s disease (CD). Currently, AIEC are identified by time-consuming techniques based on in vitro infection of cell lines to determine their ability to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells as well as to survive and replicate within macrophages. Our aim was to find signature sequences that can be used to identify the AIEC pathotype. Comparative genomics was performed between three E. coli strain pairs, each pair comprised one AIEC and one non-AIEC with identical pulsotype, sequence type and virulence gene carriage. Genetic differences were further analysed in 22 AIEC and 28…

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