Mitochondria are one of the dominant drivers for producing cellular energy to meet a large number of biological functions, of which the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the control center of energetic driving force and the dominant driver of mitochondrial molecular diversification. mtDNA transcription generates the necessary RNAs to regulate the extent and nature of mtRNA post-transcriptional modifications and the activity of nucleus-encoded enzymes. With a special focus on mtDNA, the current volume aims to overview the biology and structures of mtDNA, regulatory roles of mtDNA in lung diseases, or involvement of mtDNA in metabolism. We explore the significance of mtDNA sequencing, methylation, stability, and mutation in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Molecular mechanisms by which mtDNA contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis and drug resistance are also discussed. We also point out the importance of mitochondrial ribosome, single cell biology, and gene editing in the understanding of the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in lung disease.