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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Induced salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass by a novel bacterium strain from the rhizosphere of a desert shrub Haloxylon ammodendron.

Drought and soil salinity reduce agricultural output worldwide. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and augment plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 perennial succulent xerohalophyte shrub with excellent drought and salt tolerance, is naturally distributed in the desert area of northwest China. In our previous work, a bacterium strain numbered as M30-35 was isolated from the rhizosphere ofH. ammodendronin Tengger desert, Gansu province, northwest China. In current work, the effects of M30-35 inoculation on salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass were evaluated and its genome was sequenced to identify genes associated with plant growth promotion. Results…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and analysis of the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain N85 used in Chinese rice wine production.

Chinese rice wine is a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China, while its brewing processes have rarely been explored. We herein report the first gapless, near-finished genome sequence of the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae N85 for Chinese rice wine production. Several assembly methods were used to integrate Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data to achieve high-quality genome sequencing of the strain. The genome encodes more than 6,000 predicted proteins, and 238 long non-coding RNAs, which are validated by RNA-sequencing data. Moreover, our annotation predicts 171 novel genes that are not present in the reference S288c genome. We also identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Enhancing the adaptability of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 to high pressure and low temperature by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress.

Oxidative stresses commonly exist in natural environments, and microbes have developed a variety of defensive systems to counteract such events. Although increasing evidence has shown that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, there is no direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of bacteria to HHP and LT. In this study, using the wild-type (WT) strain of a deep-sea bacterium, Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, as an ancestor, we obtained a mutant, OE100, with an enhanced antioxidant defense capacity by experimental evolution under H2O2 stress. Notably, OE100 exhibited…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Rhizospheric microbial communities are driven by Panax ginseng at different growth stages and biocontrol bacteria alleviates replanting mortality

The cultivation of Panax plants is hindered by replanting problems, which may be caused by plant-driven changes in the soil microbial community. Inoculation with microbial antagonists may efficiently alleviate replanting issues. Through high-throughput sequencing, this study revealed that bacterial diversity decreased, whereas fungal diversity increased, in the rhizosphere soils of adult ginseng plants at the root growth stage under different ages. Few microbial community, such as Luteolibacter, Cytophagaceae, Luteibacter, Sphingomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Zygomycota, were observed; the relative abundance of microorganisms, namely, Brevundimonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Pandoraea, Cantharellales, Dendryphion, Fusarium, and Chytridiomycota, increased in the soils of adult ginseng plants compared with those…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Loss of stomach, loss of appetite? Sequencing of the ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) genome and intestinal transcriptomic profiling illuminate the evolution of loss of stomach function in fish.

The ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) belongs to a large teleost family containing more than 600 species showing several unique evolutionary traits such as lack of stomach and hermaphroditism. Agastric fish are found throughout the teleost phylogeny, in quite diverse and unrelated lineages, indicating stomach loss has occurred independently multiple times in the course of evolution. By assembling the ballan wrasse genome and transcriptome we aimed to determine the genetic basis for its digestive system function and appetite regulation. Among other, this knowledge will aid the formulation of aquaculture diets that meet the nutritional needs of agastric species.Long and short read…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Predominant gut Lactobacillus murinus strain mediates anti-inflammaging effects in calorie-restricted mice.

Calorie restriction (CR), which has a potent anti-inflammaging effect, has been demonstrated to induce dramatic changes in the gut microbiota. Whether the modulated gut microbiota contributes to the attenuation of inflammation during CR is unknown, as are the members of the microbial community that may be key mediators of this process.Here, we report that a unique Lactobacillus-predominated microbial community was rapidly attained in mice within 2 weeks of CR, which decreased the levels of circulating microbial antigens and systemic inflammatory markers such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). Lactobacillus murinus CR147, an isolate in the most abundant operational taxonomic unit (OTU)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Microsatellite polymorphism in the endangered snail kite reveals a panmictic, low diversity population

Genetic structure and genetic diversity are key population characteristics that can inform conservation decisions, such as delineating management units or assessing potential risks for inbreeding depression. Evidence of genetic structuring or low genetic diversity in the critically endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) would have implications for monitoring and planning decisions. Recent work on understanding connectivity across the snail kite range indicated that there is less dispersal between northern and southern parts of the current range, and that dispersal is shaped by individual habitat preference. We examine whether there is neutral genetic structure and the amount of genetic variation in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of oral Campylobacter concisus strains identified a potential bacterial molecular marker associated with active Crohn’s disease.

Campylobacter concisus is an oral bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). C. concisus consists of two genomospecies (GS) and diverse strains. This study aimed to identify molecular markers to differentiate commensal and IBD-associated C. concisus strains. The genomes of 63 oral C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and healthy controls were examined, of which 38 genomes were sequenced in this study. We identified a novel secreted enterotoxin B homologue, Csep1. The csep1 gene was found in 56% of GS2 C. concisus strains, presented in the plasmid pICON…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Developing collaborative works for faster progress on fungal respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease. Therefore, the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) has launched…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multi-omics approach identifies novel pathogen-derived prognostic biomarkers in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human pathogen that causes health-care associated blood stream infections (BSI). Although P. aeruginosa BSI are associated with high mortality rates, the clinical relevance of pathogen-derived prognostic biomarker to identify patients at risk for unfavorable outcome remains largely unexplored. We found novel pathogen-derived prognostic biomarker candidates by applying a multi-omics approach on a multicenter sepsis patient cohort. Multi-level Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between patient characteristics and pathogen features (2298 accessory genes, 1078 core protein levels, 107 parsimony-informative variations in reported virulence factors) with 30-day mortality. Our analysis revealed that presence of the helP…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genome of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma.

Marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) is considered to be a useful fish model for marine and estuarine ecotoxicology studies and has good potential for field-based population genomics because of its geographical distribution in Asian estuarine and coastal areas. In this study, we present the first whole-genome draft of O. melastigma. The genome assembly consists of 8,602 scaffolds (N50 = 23.737 Mb) and a total genome length of 779.4 Mb. A total of 23,528 genes were predicted, and 12,670 gene families shared with three teleost species (Japanese medaka, mangrove killifish and zebrafish) were identified. Genome analyses revealed that the O. melastigma genome is highly heterozygous and contains a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Landscape of the genome and host cell response of Mycobacterium shigaense reveals pathogenic features.

A systems approach was used to explore the genome and transcriptome of Mycobacterium shigaense, a new opportunistic pathogen isolated from a patient with a skin infection, and the host response transcriptome was assessed using a macrophage infection model. The M. shigaense genome comprises 5,207,883?bp, with 67.2% G+C content and 5098 predicted coding genes. Evolutionarily, the bacterium belongs to a cluster in the phylogenetic tree along with three target opportunistic pathogenic strains, namely, M. avium, M. triplex and M. simiae. Potential virulence genes are indeed expressed by M. shigaense under culture conditions. Phenotypically, M. shigaense had similar infection and replication capacities…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A comprehensive understanding of the biocontrol potential of Bacillus velezensis LM2303 against Fusarium head blight.

Fusarium head blight (FHB) mainly caused by F. graminearum, always brings serious damage to wheat production worldwide. In this study, we found that strain LM2303 had strong antagonist activity against F. graminearum and significantly reduced disease severity of FHB with the control efficiency of 72.3% under field conditions. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the biocontrol potential of strain LM2303 against FHB, an integrated approach of genome mining and chemical analysis was employed. The whole genome of strain LM2303 was obtained and analyzed, showing the largest number of genes/gene clusters associated with biocontrol functions as compared with the known biocontrol…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

T-independent IFN? and B cells cooperate to prevent mortality associated with disseminated Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

CD4 T cells and antibody are required for optimal acquired immunity to C. muridarum genital tract infection, and T cell-mediated IFN? production is necessary to clear infection in the absence of humoral immunity. However, the role of T cell-independent immune responses during primary infection remains unclear. We investigated this question by inoculating wild-type and immune-deficient mice with C. muridarum CM001, a clonal isolate capable of enhanced extragenital replication. Genital inoculation of wild-type mice resulted in transient dissemination to the lungs and spleen that then was rapidly cleared from these organs. However, CM001 genital infection proved lethal for STAT1-/- and IFNG-/-…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Tumor-specific mitochondrial DNA variants are rarely detected in cell-free DNA.

The use of blood-circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a “liquid biopsy” in oncology is being explored for its potential as a cancer biomarker. Mitochondria contain their own circular genomic entity (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA), up to even thousands of copies per cell. The mutation rate of mtDNA is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the nuclear DNA. Tumor-specific variants have been identified in tumors along the entire mtDNA, and their number varies among and within tumors. The high mtDNA copy number per cell and the high mtDNA mutation rate make it worthwhile to explore the potential of tumor-specific cf-mtDNA…

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