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April 1, 2019

Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 with blaOXA-181, South Africa, 2014-2016.

Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 307 is an emerging global antimicrobial drug-resistant clone. We used whole-genome sequencing and PCR to characterize K. pneumoniae ST307 with oxacillinase (OXA) 181 carbapenemase across several private hospitals in South Africa during 2014-2016. The South Africa ST307 belonged to a different clade (clade VI) with unique genomic characteristics when compared with global ST307 (clades I-V). Bayesian evolution analysis showed that clade VI emerged around March 2013 in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and then evolved during 2014 into 2 distinct lineages. K. pneumoniae ST307 clade VI with OXA-181 disseminated over a 15-month period within 42 hospitals…

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April 1, 2019

Massive Changes of Genome Size Driven by Expansions of Non-autonomous Transposable Elements.

In eukaryotes, genome size correlates little with the number of coding genes or the level of organismal complexity (C-value paradox). The underlying causes of variations in genome size, whether adaptive or neutral, remain unclear, although several biological traits often covary with it [1-5]. Rapid increases in genome size occur mainly through whole-genome duplications or bursts in the activity of transposable elements (TEs) [6]. The very small and compact genome of Oikopleura dioica, a tunicate of the larvacean class, lacks elements of most ancient families of animal retrotransposons [7, 8]. Here, we sequenced the genomes of six other larvaceans, all of…

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April 1, 2019

Relocation of Tn2009 and characterization of an ABGRI3-2 from re-sequenced genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii MDR-ZJ06.

Sir,Acinetobacter baumannii is becoming an important opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen and has shown extensive MDR to most first-line antibiotics in recent years. The acquisition of the MDR phenotype is a determining factor for the success of A. baumannii. For example, blaOXA-23is the most common acquired gene for car- bapenem resistance, and it is acquired via mobile element. Our previous studies identified six clones (clones A–F) of imipenem- resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from 16 cities in 2005 in China and clone C was the dominant clone in various cities.1 One isolate of clone C, MDR-ZJ06, which belonged to global clone 2,…

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April 1, 2019

Persistence of Moraxella catarrhalis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Regulation of the Hag/MID Adhesin.

Persistence of bacterial pathogens in the airways has profound consequences on the course and pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD continuously acquire and clear strains of Moraxella catarrhalis, a major pathogen in COPD. Some strains are cleared quickly and some persist for months to years. The mechanism of the variability in duration of persistence is unknown. Guided by genome sequences of selected strains, we studied the expression of Hag/MID, hag/mid gene sequences, adherence to human cells, and autoaggregation in longitudinally collected strains of M. catarrhalis from adults with COPD. Twenty-eight of 30 cleared strains of M.…

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April 1, 2019

Lycophyte plastid genomics: extreme variation in GC, gene and intron content and multiple inversions between a direct and inverted orientation of the rRNA repeat.

Lycophytes are a key group for understanding vascular plant evolution. Lycophyte plastomes are highly distinct, indicating a dynamic evolutionary history, but detailed evaluation is hindered by the limited availability of sequences. Eight diverse plastomes were sequenced to assess variation in structure and functional content across lycophytes. Lycopodiaceae plastomes have remained largely unchanged compared with the common ancestor of land plants, whereas plastome evolution in Isoetes and especially Selaginella is highly dynamic. Selaginella plastomes have the highest GC content and fewest genes and introns of any photosynthetic land plant. Uniquely, the canonical inverted repeat was converted into a direct repeat (DR)…

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April 1, 2019

The Genome of Cucurbita argyrosperma (Silver-Seed Gourd) Reveals Faster Rates of Protein-Coding Gene and Long Noncoding RNA Turnover and Neofunctionalization within Cucurbita.

Whole-genome duplications are an important source of evolutionary novelties that change the mode and tempo at which genetic elements evolve within a genome. The Cucurbita genus experienced a whole-genome duplication around 30 million years ago, although the evolutionary dynamics of the coding and noncoding genes in this genus have not yet been scrutinized. Here, we analyzed the genomes of four Cucurbita species, including a newly assembled genome of Cucurbita argyrosperma, and compared the gene contents of these species with those of five other members of the Cucurbitaceae family to assess the evolutionary dynamics of protein-coding and long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) genes…

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April 1, 2019

Platanus-allee is a de novo haplotype assembler enabling a comprehensive access to divergent heterozygous regions.

The ultimate goal for diploid genome determination is to completely decode homologous chromosomes independently, and several phasing programs from consensus sequences have been developed. These methods work well for lowly heterozygous genomes, but the manifold species have high heterozygosity. Additionally, there are highly divergent regions (HDRs), where the haplotype sequences differ considerably. Because HDRs are likely to direct various interesting biological phenomena, many genomic analysis targets fall within these regions. However, they cannot be accessed by existing phasing methods, and we have to adopt costly traditional methods. Here, we develop a de novo haplotype assembler, Platanus-allee ( http://platanus.bio.titech.ac.jp/platanus2 ), which…

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April 1, 2019

High quality reference genomes for toxigenic and non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139.

Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae of the O139 serogroup have been responsible for several large cholera epidemics in South Asia, and continue to be of clinical and historical significance today. This serogroup was initially feared to represent a new, emerging V. cholerae clone that would lead to an eighth cholera pandemic. However, these concerns were ultimately unfounded. The majority of clinically relevant V. cholerae O139 isolates are closely related to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor V. cholerae, and comprise a single sublineage of the seventh pandemic El Tor lineage. Although related, these V. cholerae serogroups differ in several fundamental ways, in terms…

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April 1, 2019

Functional genomics of the rapidly replicating bacterium Vibrio natriegens by CRISPRi.

The fast-growing Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio natriegens is an attractive microbial system for molecular biology and biotechnology due to its remarkably short generation time1,2 and metabolic prowess3,4. However, efforts to uncover and utilize the mechanisms underlying its rapid growth are hampered by the scarcity of functional genomic data. Here, we develop a pooled genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference (CRISPRi) screen to identify a minimal set of genes required for rapid wild-type growth. Targeting 4,565 (99.7%) of predicted protein-coding genes, our screen uncovered core genes comprising putative essential and growth-supporting genes that are enriched for respiratory pathways. We…

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April 1, 2019

Prunus genetics and applications after de novo genome sequencing: achievements and prospects.

Prior to the availability of whole-genome sequences, our understanding of the structural and functional aspects of Prunus tree genomes was limited mostly to molecular genetic mapping of important traits and development of EST resources. With public release of the peach genome and others that followed, significant advances in our knowledge of Prunus genomes and the genetic underpinnings of important traits ensued. In this review, we highlight key achievements in Prunus genetics and breeding driven by the availability of these whole-genome sequences. Within the structural and evolutionary contexts, we summarize: (1) the current status of Prunus whole-genome sequences; (2) preliminary and…

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April 1, 2019

Whole genome sequencing identifies bacterial factors affecting transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-prevalence setting.

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can elucidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission patterns but more data is needed to guide its use in high-burden settings. In a household-based TB transmissibility study in Peru, we identified a large MIRU-VNTR Mtb cluster (148 isolates) with a range of resistance phenotypes, and studied host and bacterial factors contributing to its spread. WGS was performed on 61 of the 148 isolates. We compared transmission link inference using epidemiological or genomic data and estimated the dates of emergence of the cluster and antimicrobial drug resistance (DR) acquisition events by generating a time-calibrated phylogeny. Using a set of…

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April 1, 2019

A high-quality apple genome assembly reveals the association of a retrotransposon and red fruit colour.

A complete and accurate genome sequence provides a fundamental tool for functional genomics and DNA-informed breeding. Here, we assemble a high-quality genome (contig N50 of 6.99?Mb) of the apple anther-derived homozygous line HFTH1, including 22 telomere sequences, using a combination of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) sequencing, and optical mapping. In comparison to the Golden Delicious reference genome, we identify 18,047 deletions, 12,101 insertions and 14 large inversions. We reveal that these extensive genomic variations are largely attributable to activity of transposable elements. Interestingly, we find that a long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon insertion upstream of…

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April 1, 2019

Assembly of long, error-prone reads using repeat graphs.

Accurate genome assembly is hampered by repetitive regions. Although long single molecule sequencing reads are better able to resolve genomic repeats than short-read data, most long-read assembly algorithms do not provide the repeat characterization necessary for producing optimal assemblies. Here, we present Flye, a long-read assembly algorithm that generates arbitrary paths in an unknown repeat graph, called disjointigs, and constructs an accurate repeat graph from these error-riddled disjointigs. We benchmark Flye against five state-of-the-art assemblers and show that it generates better or comparable assemblies, while being an order of magnitude faster. Flye nearly doubled the contiguity of the human genome…

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April 1, 2019

Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution.

Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with…

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April 1, 2019

Neopinone isomerase is involved in codeine and morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

The isomerization of neopinone to codeinone is a critical step in the biosynthesis of opiate alkaloids in opium poppy. Previously assumed to be spontaneous, the process is in fact catalyzed enzymatically by neopinone isomerase (NISO). Without NISO the primary metabolic products in the plant, in engineered microbes and in vitro are neopine and neomorphine, which are structural isomers of codeine and morphine, respectively. Inclusion of NISO in yeast strains engineered to convert thebaine to natural or semisynthetic opiates dramatically enhances formation of the desired products at the expense of neopine and neomorphine accumulation. Along with thebaine synthase, NISO is the…

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