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June 1, 2019

Genome sequence of Methylocystis hirsuta CSC1, a polyhydroxyalkanoate producing methanotroph.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics that can be produced by some methanotrophic organisms such as those of the genus Methylocystis. This allows the conversion of a detrimental greenhouse gas into an environmentally friendly high added-value bioproduct. This study presents the genome sequence of Methylocystis hirsuta CSC1 (a high yield PHB producer). The genome comprises 4,213,043 bp in 4 contigs, with the largest contig being 3,776,027 bp long. Two of the other contigs are likely to correspond to large size plasmids. A total of 4,664 coding sequences were annotated, revealing a PHA production cluster, two distinct particulate methane monooxygenases with active catalytic sites,…

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June 1, 2019

The Genome of C57BL/6J “Eve”, the Mother of the Laboratory Mouse Genome Reference Strain.

Isogenic laboratory mouse strains enhance reproducibility because individual animals are genetically identical. For the most widely used isogenic strain, C57BL/6, there exists a wealth of genetic, phenotypic, and genomic data, including a high-quality reference genome (GRCm38.p6). Now 20 years after the first release of the mouse reference genome, C57BL/6J mice are at least 26 inbreeding generations removed from GRCm38 and the strain is now maintained with periodic reintroduction of cryorecovered mice derived from a single breeder pair, aptly named Adam and Eve. To provide an update to the mouse reference genome that more accurately represents the genome of today's C57BL/6J…

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June 1, 2019

Molecular Mechanism of N,N-Dimethylformamide Degradation in Methylobacterium sp. Strain DM1.

N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) is one of the most common xenobiotic chemicals, and it can be easily emitted into the environment, where it causes harm to human beings. Herein, an efficient DMF-degrading strain, DM1, was isolated and identified as Methylobacterium sp. This strain can use DMF as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Whole-genome sequencing of strain DM1 revealed that it has a 5.66-Mbp chromosome and a 200-kbp megaplasmid. The plasmid pLVM1 specifically harbors the genes essential for the initial steps of DMF degradation, and the chromosome carries the genes facilitating subsequent methylotrophic metabolism. Through analysis of the transcriptome sequencing data,…

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June 1, 2019

Whole genome sequencing used in an industrial context reveals a Salmonella laboratory cross-contamination.

In 2013, during a routine laboratory analysis performed on food samples, one finished product from a European factory was tested positive for Salmonella Hadar. At the same period, one environmental isolate in the same laboratory was serotyped Salmonella Hadar. Prior to this event, the laboratory performed a proficiency testing involving a sample spiked with NCTC 9877 Salmonella Hadar. The concomitance of Salmonella Hadar detection led to the suspicion of a laboratory cross-contamination between the Salmonella Hadar isolate used in the laboratory proficiency testing and the Salmonella Hadar isolate found on the finished product by the same laboratory. Since the classical…

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June 1, 2019

Genetic characterization of an MDR/virulence genomic element carrying two T6SS gene clusters in a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate of swine origin.

Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates rarely cause infections in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate a multiresistant porcine K. pneumoniae isolate for plasmidic and chromosomal antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes and their genetic environment.K. pneumoniae strain ZYST1 originated from a pig with pneumonia. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using broth microdilution. Conjugation experiments were conducted using Escherichia coli J53 as the recipient. The complete sequences of the chromosomal DNA and the plasmids were generated by WGS and analysed for the presence of resistance and virulence genes.The MDR K. pneumoniae ST1 strain ZYST1 contained three plasmids belonging to incompatibility…

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June 1, 2019

Identification of the novel class D ß-lactamase OXA-679 involved in carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

The aim of this study was to characterize the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus clinical isolate AC_2117 with the novel carbapenem-hydrolysing class D ß-lactamase (CHDL) OXA-679.Identification of the species and ß-lactamases was verified by genome sequencing (PacBio) and phylogenetic analyses. Antibiotic susceptibility of AC_2117 and transformants harbouring cloned blaOXA-679 was evaluated using antibiotic gradient strips and microbroth dilution. OXA-679 was purified heterologously and kinetic parameters were determined using spectrometry or isothermal titration calorimetry. The impact of OXA-679 production during imipenem therapy was evaluated in the Galleria mellonella infection model.Sequencing of the complete genome of the clinical A. calcoaceticus isolate AC_2117 identified a novel…

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June 1, 2019

Genomics and Experimental Analysis Reveal a Novel Factor Contributing to the Virulence of Cronobacter sakazakii Strains Associated With Neonate Infection.

Cronobacter sakazakii causes meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. However, its virulence determinants, especially those specific for strains associated with neonate infections, remain largely unknown.In this study, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 209 C. sakazakii genomes, and 8 clonal groups (CGs) were revealed.CG1 and CG2 were found to be significantly associated with neonate infections, and significantly prevalent genes in these 2 CGs were identified. Of these, a gene encoding the LysR-type regulator, CklR, was shown to contribute to bacterial pathogenicity based on animal experiments. We found that CklR directly binds and activates the suf Fe-S cluster biosynthesis…

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June 1, 2019

Genomic Investigation of the Emergence of Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin in Humans and Animals in Canada.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin is a zoonotic pathogen that often leads to invasive bloodstream infections in humans that are multidrug resistant. Described here are the results of Canadian national surveillance of S Dublin from 2003 to 2015 in humans and bovines, principally collected through the Canadian Integrated Program for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). An increase in human infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) S Dublin was observed in 2010, many of which were bloodstream infections. Phylogenomic analysis of human and bovine isolates revealed a closely related network that differed by only 0 to 17 single nucleotide variants (SNVs), suggesting…

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May 28, 2019

Improved assembly and variant detection of a haploid human genome using single-molecule, high-fidelity long reads

The sequence and assembly of human genomes using long-read sequencing technologies has revolutionized our understanding of structural variation and genome organization. We compared the accuracy, continuity, and gene annotation of genome assemblies generated from either high-fidelity (HiFi) or continuous long-read (CLR) datasets from the same complete hydatidiform mole human genome. We find that the HiFi sequence data assemble an additional 10% of duplicated regions and more accurately represent the structure of large tandem repeats, as validated with orthogonal analyses. Additionally, the HiFi genome assembly was generated in significantly less time with fewer computational resources than the CLR assembly. Although the…

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May 20, 2019

Technical Note: Preparing libraries for PacBio whole genome sequencing for de novo assembly – Quality control and size selection

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing uses the natural process of DNA replication to sequence long fragments of native DNA. As such, starting with high-quality, high molecular weight genomic DNA will result in longer libraries and better performance across difficult to sequence regions of the genome. This technical note is intended to give recommendations, tips and tricks for assessing and preserving the quality and size of your SMRTbell library, and size selection procedures for libraries intended to be used with whole genome sequencing for de novo assembly.

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May 20, 2019

Technical Note: Preparing DNA for PacBio whole genome sequencing for de novo assembly – Quality control and shearing

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing uses the natural process of DNA replication to sequence long fragments of native DNA. As such, starting with high-quality, high molecular weight (HMW) genomic DNA (gDNA) will result in longer libraries and better performance across difficult to sequence regions of the genome. This technical note is intended to give recommendations, tips and tricks for assessing and preserving the quality and size of your gDNA sample, shearing methods, and size selection procedures for samples intended to be used with whole genome sequencing for de novo assembly.

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May 20, 2019

Case Study: Sequencing an historic bacterial collection for the future

The UK’s National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) is a unique collection of more than 5,000 expertly preserved and authenticated bacterial cultures, many of historical significance. Founded in 1920, NCTC is the longest established collection of its type anywhere in the world, with a history of its own that has reflected — and contributed to — the evolution of microbiology for more than 100 years.

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May 1, 2019

Early Sex-chromosome Evolution in the Diploid Dioecious Plant Mercurialis annua.

Suppressed recombination allows divergence between homologous sex chromosomes and the functionality of their genes. Here, we reveal patterns of the earliest stages of sex-chromosome evolution in the diploid dioecious herb Mercurialis annua on the basis of cytological analysis, de novo genome assembly and annotation, genetic mapping, exome resequencing of natural populations, and transcriptome analysis. The genome assembly contained 34,105 expressed genes, of which 10,076 were assigned to linkage groups. Genetic mapping and exome resequencing of individuals across the species range both identified the largest linkage group, LG1, as the sex chromosome. Although the sex chromosomes of M. annua are karyotypically…

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May 1, 2019

Complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. DMSP-1 isolated from the Arctic seawater of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

The genus Pseudomonas is highly metabolically diverse and has colonized a wide range of ecological niches. The strain Pseudomonas sp. DMSP-1 was isolated from Arctic seawater (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) using dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as the sole carbon source. To better understand its role in the Arctic coastal ecosystem, the genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain DMSP-1 was completely sequenced. The genome contained a circular chromosome of 6,282,445?bp with an average GC content of 60.01?mol%. A total of 5510 protein coding genes, 70 tRNA genes and 19 rRNA genes were obtained. However, no genes encoding known enzymes associated with DMSP catabolism were identified in…

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