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April 1, 2016

Comparative analysis of an IncR plasmid carrying armA, blaDHA-1 and qnrB4 from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 isolates.

The objective of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis with reported IncR plasmids of a Klebsiella pneumoniae IncR plasmid carrying an MDR region.MDR K. pneumoniae isolates were serially identified from two inpatients at a hospital in the USA in 2014. MDR plasmid pYDC676 was fully sequenced, annotated and compared with related plasmids. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE and MLST were also conducted.The K. pneumoniae isolates were identical by PFGE, belonged to ST37 and harboured an identical ~50 kb IncR plasmid (pYDC676). pYDC676 possessed the backbone and multi-IS loci closely related to IncR plasmids reported from aquatic bacteria, as well…

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March 21, 2016

Global phylogeography and evolutionary history of Shigella dysenteriae type 1

Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries1. A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission2. This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries1,3,4 and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 18975. Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 331 Sd1 isolates from around the world, collected between 1915 and 2011, providing us with…

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March 16, 2016

Indica rice genome assembly, annotation and mining of blast disease resistance genes.

Rice is a major staple food crop in the world. Over 80 % of rice cultivation area is under indica rice. Currently, genomic resources are lacking for indica as compared to japonica rice. In this study, we generated deep-sequencing data (Illumina and Pacific Biosciences sequencing) for one of the indica rice cultivars, HR-12 from India.We assembled over 86 % (389 Mb) of rice genome and annotated 56,284 protein-coding genes from HR-12 genome using Illumina and PacBio sequencing. Comprehensive comparative analyses between indica and japonica subspecies genomes revealed a large number of indica specific variants including SSRs, SNPs and InDels. To mine disease resistance…

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March 15, 2016

Insights into adaptations to a near-obligate nematode endoparasitic lifestyle from the finished genome of Drechmeria coniospora.

Nematophagous fungi employ three distinct predatory strategies: nematode trapping, parasitism of females and eggs, and endoparasitism. While endoparasites play key roles in controlling nematode populations in nature, their application for integrated pest management is hindered by the limited understanding of their biology. We present a comparative analysis of a high quality finished genome assembly of Drechmeria coniospora, a model endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, integrated with a transcriptomic study. Adaptation of D. coniospora to its almost completely obligate endoparasitic lifestyle led to the simplification of many orthologous gene families involved in the saprophytic trophic mode, while maintaining orthologs of most known fungal…

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March 11, 2016

Colistin-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 654 with blaNDM-1 Arrives in North America.

This study describes 3 different blaNDM-1 genetic platforms in 3 different species obtained from the same patient who was directly transferred to an institution in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, following a prolonged hospital stay in India. The blaNDM-1 in the Escherichia coli isolate was located on a 176-kb IncA/C plasmid contained within an ISCR1 region. The blaNDM-1 in the Providencia rettgeri isolate was located on a 117-kb IncT plasmid contained within Tn3000, while the blaNDM-1 in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate was located on the chromosome within an ISCR3 region. This report highlights the plasticity of the genetic regions and environments associated…

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March 9, 2016

The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a ß-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes.

Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport. The present study discloses three such Eceriferum (cer) genes in barley - Cer-c, Cer-q and Cer-u - known to be tightly linked and functioning in a biochemical pathway forming dominating amounts of ß-diketone and hydroxy-ß-diketones plus some esterified alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons…

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March 1, 2016

Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production.

In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput 'omics' technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

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March 1, 2016

Complete sequences of multidrug resistance plasmids bearing rmtD1 and rmtD2 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase genes.

Complete nucleotide sequences were determined for two plasmids bearing rmtD group 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes. pKp64/11 was 78 kb in size, belonged to the IncL/M group, and harbored blaTEM-1b, sul1, qacE?1, dfrA22, and rmtD1 across two multidrug resistance regions (MRRs). pKp368/10 was 170 kb in size, belonged to the IncA/C group, and harbored acrB, sul1, qacE?1, ant(3?)-Ia, aac(6')-Ib, cat, rmtD2, and blaCTX-M-8 across three MRRs. The rmtD-containing regions shared a conserved motif, suggesting a common origin for the two rmtD alleles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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March 1, 2016

Coproduction of KPC-18 and VIM-1 carbapenemases by Enterobacter cloacae: Implications for newer ß-lactam-ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

Enterobacter cloacae strain G6809 with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was identified from a patient in a long-term acute care hospital in Kentucky. G6809 belonged to sequence type (ST) 88 and carried two carbapenemase genes, blaKPC-18 and blaVIM-1. Whole-genome sequencing localized blaKPC-18 to the chromosome and blaVIM-1 to a 58-kb plasmid. The strain was highly resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam. Insidious coproduction of metallo-ß-lactamase with KPC-type carbapenemase has implications for the use of next-generation ß-lactam-ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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March 1, 2016

Mobile genetic elements: in silico, in vitro, in vivo.

Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), also called transposable elements (TEs), represent universal components of most genomes and are intimately involved in nearly all aspects of genome organization, function and evolution. However, there is currently a gap between the fast pace of TE discovery in silico, driven by the exponential growth of comparative genomic studies, and a limited number of experimental models amenable to more traditional in vitro and in vivo studies of structural, mechanistic and regulatory properties of diverse MGEs. Experimental and computational scientists came together to bridge this gap at a recent conference, 'Mobile Genetic Elements: in silico, in vitro, in vivo', held at…

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February 25, 2016

The emergence and intercontinental spread of a multidrug-resistant clade of typhoid agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

Multidrug-resistant typhoid is a global health problem. Previous studies conducted in countries of Asia and Africa have identified a highly clonal, multidrug-resistant lineage of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi), known as H58. However, little is known about the emergence and geographical spread of the H58 clade. In this study, we have used whole-genome sequencing of a global collection of S Typhi to investigate this highly successful lineage.

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February 23, 2016

Population structure and acquisition of the vanB resistance determinant in German clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium ST192.

In the context of the global action plan to reduce the dissemination of antibiotic resistances it is of utmost importance to understand the population structure of resistant endemic bacterial lineages and to elucidate how bacteria acquire certain resistance determinants. Vancomycin resistant enterococci represent one such example of a prominent nosocomial pathogen on which nation-wide population analyses on prevalent lineages are scarce and data on how the bacteria acquire resistance, especially of the vanB genotype, are still under debate. With respect to Germany, an increased prevalence of VRE was noted in recent years. Here, invasive infections caused by sequence type ST192…

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February 20, 2016

Complete genome sequence of strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) isolated from saline sediment.

The type strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) with considerably highly NaCl tolerance is a member of halophiles. Here we report its genome sequence, the first to publish complete genome sequence of the Lentibacillus genus. It contains 3,858,520bp with an average GC content of 42.12%, encoding multiple valuable proteins academically and industrially. The genome sequence of strain LAM0015(T) provides basic information for further elucidation of halophilic mechanism and wider exploitation of functional genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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February 15, 2016

AnnoTALE: bioinformatics tools for identification, annotation, and nomenclature of TALEs from Xanthomonas genomic sequences.

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are virulence factors, produced by the bacterial plant-pathogen Xanthomonas, that function as gene activators inside plant cells. Although the contribution of individual TALEs to infectivity has been shown, the specific roles of most TALEs, and the overall TALE diversity in Xanthomonas spp. is not known. TALEs possess a highly repetitive DNA-binding domain, which is notoriously difficult to sequence. Here, we describe an improved method for characterizing TALE genes by the use of PacBio sequencing. We present 'AnnoTALE', a suite of applications for the analysis and annotation of TALE genes from Xanthomonas genomes, and for grouping similar…

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February 12, 2016

Long-read assembly of the Aedes aegypti Aag2 cell line genome resolves ancient endogenous viral elements

Transmission of arboviruses such as Dengue and Zika viruses by Aedes aegypti causes widespread and debilitating disease across the globe. Disease in humans can include severe acute symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever, organ failure, and encephalitis; and yet, mosquitoes tolerate high titers of virus in a persistent infection. The mechanisms responsible for tolerance to viral infection in mosquitoes are still unclear. Recent publications have highlighted the integration of genetic material from non-retroviral RNA viruses into the genome of the host during infection that relies upon endogenous retro-transcriptase activity from transposons. These endogenous viral elements (EVEs) found in the genome are…

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