In this presentation, Naomichi Matsumoto from Yokohama City University speaks about the use of SMRT Sequencing to solve Mendelian diseases, including the story of how his lab discovered a 12.4 kb structural variant that’s responsible for progressive myoclonic epilepsy in two siblings. He also reports progress in understanding repeat expansion disorders by pairing SMRT Sequencing with new analysis tools designed to highlight repetitive areas.
Paul Hagerman, MD/PhD, a professor in the biochemistry and molecular medicine department at UC Davis discusses the use of PacBio SMRT sequencing technology for the fragile X gene. Hagerman says the PacBio RS is able to sequence through more than a kilobase of the CGG trinucleotide repeat element underlying Fragile X Syndrome — something no other sequencing platform has achieved. He also plans to use the data to study methylation of this gene, which tends to occur in cases where there are more than 200 copies of the CGG element.
In this AGBT talk, Mount Sinai’s Eric Schadt uses PacBio sequencing on human genomes and reports finding uncharacterized structural variation that could have diagnostic utility. Schadt says that SMRT sequencing is advantageous for long-range genetic information, extreme GC content, and highly repetitive regions. He presents sequence data for a CEPH individual studied for repeat expansions, showing that long reads can resolve the majority of these regions.
Ali Bashir from the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology at Mount Sinai describes a tool to detect tandem repeats (PACMonSTR), which he believes are dramatically underrepresented in the human genome reference but that can be discovered with PacBio sequencing. In a collaboration with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Cornell, Bashir and his team generated shotgun, whole-genome sequence data from human genomic DNA using PacBio sequencing. Their goal was to find structural variation features that are not present in the existing reference. He shows numerous examples wherein the long PacBio reads were able to resolve inversions in the sample,…
Dick McCombie from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory describes de novo sequencing of several organisms, including yeast, Arabidopsis, and rice. With SMRT Sequencing, structural differences are preserved and full chromosomes can assemble into single contigs. Longest read observed: 54 kb.
David Wheeler from Baylor’s Human Genome Sequencing Center presents data from matched tumor/normal pairs. His research uses SMRT Sequencing to identify structural rearrangements, like tandem duplications, finding that many of these were caused by repeat regions moving around the genome. Also: details of the new Honey-tails and Honey-spots algorithms.
Swati Ranade from PacBio presents recent efforts to look at challenging regions of the human genome using SMRT Sequencing. She highlights a study just published that fully sequences a particular mucin gene for the first time, as well as work on KIR haplotypes in humans and other primates.
KIR haplotypes can be determined by physical and computational and statistical methods. Martin Maiers from National Bone Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) presents a summary of their work to determine KIR genomic content for use in clinical transplantation, outcomes of HLA sequencing of KIR region across a variety of methods and shares their data from recent experiments using PacBio single-molecule sequencing of fosmid libraries.
Evan Eichler, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator from the University of Washington discusses his use of the PacBio system to study difficult-to-sequence regions of the human and chimp genomes. Eichler has identified a number of rapidly evolving hot spots in the human genome that are associated with disease. These regions are quite long and have extremely repetitive DNA sequence, making them difficult to elucidate with short-read sequencing and very expensive to interrogate with Sanger sequencing. Eichler’s goal is to fill in the missing regions of the human genome reference, many of which contain segmental duplications.
In his talk from the PacBio workshop at AGBT 2015, Dick McCombie from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory describes the use of SMRT Sequencing to analyze a breast cancer cell line with complex genomic events. Still ongoing, the project has already uncovered structural variants missed by other sequencers.