April 21, 2020  |  

Genome sequence of Jatropha curcas L., a non-edible biodiesel plant, provides a resource to improve seed-related traits.

Jatropha curcas (physic nut), a non-edible oilseed crop, represents one of the most promising alternative energy sources due to its high seed oil content, rapid growth and adaptability to various environments. We report ~339 Mbp draft whole genome sequence of J. curcas var. Chai Nat using both the PacBio and Illumina sequencing platforms. We identified and categorized differentially expressed genes related to biosynthesis of lipid and toxic compound among four stages of seed development. Triacylglycerol (TAG), the major component of seed storage oil, is mainly synthesized by phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase in Jatropha, and continuous high expression of homologs of oleosin over seed development contributes to accumulation of high level of oil in kernels by preventing the breakdown of TAG. A physical cluster of genes for diterpenoid biosynthetic enzymes, including casbene synthases highly responsible for a toxic compound, phorbol ester, in seed cake, was syntenically highly conserved between Jatropha and castor bean. Transcriptomic analysis of female and male flowers revealed the up-regulation of a dozen family of TFs in female flower. Additionally, we constructed a robust species tree enabling estimation of divergence times among nine Jatropha species and five commercial crops in Malpighiales order. Our results will help researchers and breeders increase energy efficiency of this important oil seed crop by improving yield and oil content, and eliminating toxic compound in seed cake for animal feed. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

April 21, 2020  |  

Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus mucosae LM1 identifies potential niche-specific genes and pathways for gastrointestinal adaptation.

Lactobacillus mucosae is currently of interest as putative probiotics due to their metabolic capabilities and ability to colonize host mucosal niches. L. mucosae LM1 has been studied in its functions in cell adhesion and pathogen inhibition, etc. It demonstrated unique abilities to use energy from carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate sources. Due to these functions, we report the first complete genome sequence of an L. mucosae strain, L. mucosae LM1. Analysis of the pan-genome in comparison with closely-related Lactobacillus species identified a complete glycogen metabolism pathway, as well as folate biosynthesis, complementing previous proteomic data on the LM1 strain. It also revealed common and unique niche-adaptation genes among the various L. mucosae strains. The aim of this study was to derive genomic information that would reveal the probable mechanisms underlying the probiotic effect of L. mucosae LM1, and provide a better understanding of the nature of L. mucosae sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

October 23, 2019  |  

Alternative splicing profile and sex-preferential gene expression in the female and male Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of the medicinal plant Zanthoxylum planispinum using a single-molecule direct RNA sequencing approach.

High-throughput RNA sequencing has revolutionized transcriptome-based studies of candidate genes, key pathways and gene regulation in non-model organisms. We analyzed full-length cDNA sequences in Zanthoxylum planispinum (Z. planispinum), a medicinal herb in major parts of East Asia. The full-length mRNA derived from tissues of leaf, early fruit and maturing fruit stage were sequenced using PacBio RSII platform to identify isoform transcriptome. We obtained 51,402 unigenes, with average 1781?bp per gene in 82.473?Mb gene lengths. Among 51,402, 3963 unigenes showed variety of isoform. By selection of one representative gene among each of the various isoforms, we finalized 46,306 unique gene set for this herb. We identified 76 cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and related isoforms that are of the wide diversity in the molecular function and biological process. These transcriptome data of Z. planispinum will provide a good resource to study metabolic engineering for the production of valuable medicinal drugs and phytochemicals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from farmed duck, Republic of Korea.

Staphylococcus cohnii has become increasingly recognized as a potential pathogen of clinically significant nosocomial and farm animal infections. This study was designed to determine the genome of a multidrug-resistant S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from a farmed duck in Korea.Genomic DNA was sequenced using the PacBio RS II system. The complete genome was annotated and the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified.The annotated 2,625,703 bp genome contained various antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to ß-lactam, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols and trimethoprim. The virulence-associated three synergistic hemolysins have been identified in the strain.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete genome of S. cohnii, and will provide important insights into the biodiversity of CoNS and valuable information for the control of this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genome and evolution of the shade-requiring medicinal herb Panax ginseng.

Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59 352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two intercontinental migrations. Two whole genome duplications (WGD) occurred in the family Araliaceae (including Panax) after divergence with the Apiaceae, the more recent one contributing to the ability of P. ginseng to overwinter, enabling it to spread broadly through the Northern Hemisphere. Functional and evolutionary analyses suggest that production of pharmacologically important dammarane-type ginsenosides originated in Panax and are produced largely in shoot tissues and transported to roots; that newly evolved P. ginseng fatty acid desaturases increase freezing tolerance; and that unprecedented retention of chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes enables efficient photosynthesis under low light. A genome-scale metabolic network provides a holistic view of Panax ginsenoside biosynthesis. This study provides valuable resources for improving medicinal values of ginseng either through genomics-assisted breeding or metabolic engineering.© 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

September 22, 2019  |  

The first whole transcriptomic exploration of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos using single and bulked embryonic RNA-sequencing.

The chicken is a valuable model organism, especially in evolutionary and embryology research because its embryonic development occurs in the egg. However, despite its scientific importance, no transcriptome data have been generated for deciphering the early developmental stages of the chicken because of practical and technical constraints in accessing pre-oviposited embryos.Here, we determine the entire transcriptome of pre-oviposited avian embryos, including oocyte, zygote, and intrauterine embryos from Eyal-giladi and Kochav stage I (EGK.I) to EGK.X collected using a noninvasive approach for the first time. We also compare RNA-sequencing data obtained using a bulked embryo sequencing and single embryo/cell sequencing technique. The raw sequencing data were preprocessed with two genome builds, Galgal4 and Galgal5, and the expression of 17,108 and 26,102 genes was quantified in the respective builds. There were some differences between the two techniques, as well as between the two genome builds, and these were affected by the emergence of long intergenic noncoding RNA annotations.The first transcriptome datasets of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos based on bulked and single embryo sequencing techniques will serve as a valuable resource for investigating early avian embryogenesis, for comparative studies among vertebrates, and for novel gene annotation in the chicken genome.

September 22, 2019  |  

PCR and omics based techniques to study the diversity, ecology and biology of anaerobic fungi: Insights, challenges andopportunities.

Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are common inhabitants of the digestive tract of mammalian herbivores, and in the rumen, can account for up to 20% of the microbial biomass. Anaerobic fungi play a primary role in the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. They also have a syntrophic interaction with methanogenic archaea, which increases their fiber degradation activity. To date, nine anaerobic fungal genera have been described, with further novel taxonomic groupings known to exist based on culture-independent molecular surveys. However, the true extent of their diversity may be even more extensively underestimated as anaerobic fungi continue being discovered in yet unexplored gut and non-gut environments. Additionally many studies are now known to have used primers that provide incomplete coverage of the Neocallimastigomycota. For ecological studies the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) has been the taxonomic marker of choice, but due to various limitations the large subunit rRNA (LSU) is now being increasingly used. How the continued expansion of our knowledge regarding anaerobic fungal diversity will impact on our understanding of their biology and ecological role remains unclear; particularly as it is becoming apparent that anaerobic fungi display niche differentiation. As a consequence, there is a need to move beyond the broad generalization of anaerobic fungi as fiber-degraders, and explore the fundamental differences that underpin their ability to exist in distinct ecological niches. Application of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to their study in pure/mixed cultures and environmental samples will be invaluable in this process. To date the genomes and transcriptomes of several characterized anaerobic fungal isolates have been successfully generated. In contrast, the application of proteomics and metabolomics to anaerobic fungal analysis is still in its infancy. A central problem for all analyses, however, is the limited functional annotation of anaerobic fungal sequence data. There is therefore an urgent need to expand information held within publicly available reference databases. Once this challenge is overcome, along with improved sample collection and extraction, the application of these techniques will be key in furthering our understanding of the ecological role and impact of anaerobic fungi in the wide range of environments they inhabit.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the Japanese oak silk moth, Antheraea yamamai: the first draft genome in the family Saturniidae.

Antheraea yamamai, also known as the Japanese oak silk moth, is a wild species of silk moth. Silk produced by A. yamamai, referred to as tensan silk, shows different characteristics such as thickness, compressive elasticity, and chemical resistance compared with common silk produced from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Its unique characteristics have led to its use in many research fields including biotechnology and medical science, and the scientific as well as economic importance of the wild silk moth continues to gradually increase. However, no genomic information for the wild silk moth, including A. yamamai, is currently available.In order to construct the A. yamamai genome, a total of 147G base pairs using Illumina and Pacbio sequencing platforms were generated, providing 210-fold coverage based on the 700-Mb estimated genome size of A. yamamai. The assembled genome of A. yamamai was 656 Mb (>2 kb) with 3675 scaffolds, and the N50 length of assembly was 739 Kb with a 34.07% GC ratio. Identified repeat elements covered 37.33% of the total genome, and the completeness of the constructed genome assembly was estimated to be 96.7% by Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs v2 analysis. A total of 15 481 genes were identified using Evidence Modeler based on the gene prediction results obtained from 3 different methods (ab initio, RNA-seq-based, known-gene-based) and manual curation.Here we present the genome sequence of A. yamamai, the first genome sequence of the wild silk moth. These results provide valuable genomic information, which will help enrich our understanding of the molecular mechanisms relating to not only specific phenotypes such as wild silk itself but also the genomic evolution of Saturniidae.© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

September 22, 2019  |  

Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng.

The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb.The first draft genome sequences of P. ginseng cultivar “Chunpoong” were reported recently. Here, using the draft genome, transcriptome, and functional annotation datasets of P. ginseng, we have constructed the Ginseng Genome Database http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /, the first open-access platform to provide comprehensive genomic resources of P. ginseng. The current version of this database provides the most up-to-date draft genome sequence (of approximately 3000 Mbp of scaffold sequences) along with the structural and functional annotations for 59,352 genes and digital expression of genes based on transcriptome data from different tissues, growth stages and treatments. In addition, tools for visualization and the genomic data from various analyses are provided. All data in the database were manually curated and integrated within a user-friendly query page.This database provides valuable resources for a range of research fields related to P. ginseng and other species belonging to the Apiales order as well as for plant research communities in general. Ginseng genome database can be accessed at http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /.

September 22, 2019  |  

The genome of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma.

Marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) is considered to be a useful fish model for marine and estuarine ecotoxicology studies and has good potential for field-based population genomics because of its geographical distribution in Asian estuarine and coastal areas. In this study, we present the first whole-genome draft of O. melastigma. The genome assembly consists of 8,602 scaffolds (N50 = 23.737 Mb) and a total genome length of 779.4 Mb. A total of 23,528 genes were predicted, and 12,670 gene families shared with three teleost species (Japanese medaka, mangrove killifish and zebrafish) were identified. Genome analyses revealed that the O. melastigma genome is highly heterozygous and contains a large number of repeat sequences. This assembly represents a useful genomic resource for fish scientists.© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genomic and probiotic characterization of SJP-SNU strain of Pichia kudriavzevii.

The yeast strain SJP-SNU was investigated as a probiotic and was characterized with respect to growth temperature, bile salt resistance, hydrogen sulfide reducing activity, intestinal survival ability and chicken embryo pathogenicity. In addition, we determined the complete genomic and mitochondrial sequences of SJP-SNU and conducted comparative genomics analyses. SJP-SNU grew rapidly at 37 °C and formed colonies on MacConkey agar containing bile salt. SJP-SNU reduced hydrogen sulfide produced by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis and, after being fed to 4-week-old chickens, could be isolated from cecal feces. SJP-SNU did not cause mortality in 10-day-old chicken embryos. From 13 initial contigs, 11 were finally assembled and represented 10 chromosomal sequences and 1 mitochondrial DNA sequence. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that SJP-SNU was a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii. Although SJP-SNU possesses pathogenicity-related genes, they showed very low amino acid sequence identities to those of Candida albicans. Furthermore, SJP-SNU possessed useful genes, such as phytases and cellulase. Thus, SJP-SNU is a useful yeast possessing the basic traits of a probiotic, and further studies to demonstrate its efficacy as a probiotic in the future may be warranted.

July 19, 2019  |  

The dentin phosphoprotein repeat region and inherited defects of dentin.

Nonsyndromic dentin defects classified as type II dentin dysplasia and types II and III dentinogenesis imperfecta are caused by mutations in DSPP (dentin sialophosphoprotein). Most reported disease-causing DSPP mutations occur within the repetitive DPP (dentin phosphoprotein) coding sequence. We characterized the DPP sequences of five probands with inherited dentin defects using single molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing. Eight of the 10 sequences matched previously reported DPP length haplotypes and two were novel. Alignment with known DPP sequences showed 32 indels arranged in 36 different patterns. Sixteen of the 32 indels were not represented in more than one haplotype. The 25 haplotypes with confirmed indels were aligned to generate a tree that describes how the length variations might have evolved. Some indels were independently generated in multiple lines. A previously reported disease-causing DSPP mutation in Family 1 was confirmed and its position clarified (c.3135delC; p.Ser1045Argfs*269). A novel frameshift mutation (c.3504_3508dup; p.Asp1170Alafs*146) caused the dentin defects in Family 2. A COL1A2 (c.2027G>A or p.Gly676Asp) missense mutation, discovered by whole-exome sequencing, caused the dentin defects in Family 3. We conclude that SMRT sequencing characterizes the DPP repeat region without cloning and can improve our understanding of normal and pathological length variations in DSPP alleles.

July 19, 2019  |  

De novo assembly and phasing of a Korean human genome.

Advances in genome assembly and phasing provide an opportunity to investigate the diploid architecture of the human genome and reveal the full range of structural variation across population groups. Here we report the de novo assembly and haplotype phasing of the Korean individual AK1 (ref. 1) using single-molecule real-time sequencing, next-generation mapping, microfluidics-based linked reads, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing approaches. Single-molecule sequencing coupled with next-generation mapping generated a highly contiguous assembly, with a contig N50 size of 17.9?Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 44.8?Mb, resolving 8 chromosomal arms into single scaffolds. The de novo assembly, along with local assemblies and spanning long reads, closes 105 and extends into 72 out of 190 euchromatic gaps in the reference genome, adding 1.03?Mb of previously intractable sequence. High concordance between the assembly and paired-end sequences from 62,758 BAC clones provides strong support for the robustness of the assembly. We identify 18,210 structural variants by direct comparison of the assembly with the human reference, identifying thousands of breakpoints that, to our knowledge, have not been reported before. Many of the insertions are reflected in the transcriptome and are shared across the Asian population. We performed haplotype phasing of the assembly with short reads, long reads and linked reads from whole-genome sequencing and with short reads from 31,719 BAC clones, thereby achieving phased blocks with an N50 size of 11.6?Mb. Haplotigs assembled from single-molecule real-time reads assigned to haplotypes on phased blocks covered 89% of genes. The haplotigs accurately characterized the hypervariable major histocompatability complex region as well as demonstrating allele configuration in clinically relevant genes such as CYP2D6. This work presents the most contiguous diploid human genome assembly so far, with extensive investigation of unreported and Asian-specific structural variants, and high-quality haplotyping of clinically relevant alleles for precision medicine.

July 19, 2019  |  

Tofacitinib relieves symptoms of stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy caused by 2 de novo variants in TMEM173.

To the Editor: Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which is encoded by transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173), is an important mediator in initiating innate immune responses by detecting aberrant DNA species or cyclic di-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) in the cytosol and driving synthesis of type I interferon.1-3cGAMP molecules, which are produced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, bind to STING homodimers embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and eventually cause phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 by activating Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Patients with activating mutations of STING display early onset of chronic inflammation and vasculopathy caused by increased type I interferon signaling, a condition termed STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI).2,3Improved understanding of STING’s function and its implications in disease pathogenesis has suggested new potential avenues of disease treatment options through modulating STING signaling pathway components.

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