July 19, 2019  |  

Gapless genome assembly of Colletotrichum higginsianum reveals chromosome structure and association of transposable elements with secondary metabolite gene clusters.

The ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum causes anthracnose disease of brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous versions of the genome sequence were highly fragmented, causing errors in the prediction of protein-coding genes and preventing the analysis of repetitive sequences and genome architecture. Here, we re-sequenced the genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and, in combination with optical map data, this provided a gapless assembly of all twelve chromosomes except for the ribosomal DNA repeat cluster on chromosome 7. The more accurate gene annotation made possible by this new assembly revealed a large repertoire of secondary metabolism (SM) key genes (89) and putative biosynthetic pathways (77 SM gene clusters). The two mini-chromosomes differed from the ten core chromosomes in being repeat- and AT-rich and gene-poor but were significantly enriched with genes encoding putative secreted effector proteins. Transposable elements (TEs) were found to occupy 7% of the genome by length. Certain TE families showed a statistically significant association with effector genes and SM cluster genes and were transcriptionally active at particular stages of fungal development. All 24 subtelomeres were found to contain one of three highly-conserved repeat elements which, by providing sites for homologous recombination, were probably instrumental in four segmental duplications.The gapless genome of C. higginsianum provides access to repeat-rich regions that were previously poorly assembled, notably the mini-chromosomes and subtelomeres, and allowed prediction of the complete SM gene repertoire. It also provides insights into the potential role of TEs in gene and genome evolution and host adaptation in this asexual pathogen.


July 19, 2019  |  

Discordant inheritance of chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA elements contributes to dynamic disease evolution in glioblastoma.

To understand how genomic heterogeneity of glioblastoma (GBM) contributes to poor therapy response, we performed DNA and RNA sequencing on GBM samples and the neurospheres and orthotopic xenograft models derived from them. We used the resulting dataset to show that somatic driver alterations including single-nucleotide variants, focal DNA alterations and oncogene amplification on extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) elements were in majority propagated from tumor to model systems. In several instances, ecDNAs and chromosomal alterations demonstrated divergent inheritance patterns and clonal selection dynamics during cell culture and xenografting. We infer that ecDNA was unevenly inherited by offspring cells, a characteristic that affects the oncogenic potential of cells with more or fewer ecDNAs. Longitudinal patient tumor profiling found that oncogenic ecDNAs are frequently retained throughout the course of disease. Our analysis shows that extrachromosomal elements allow rapid increase of genomic heterogeneity during GBM evolution, independently of chromosomal DNA alterations.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GGT036: a furfural tolerant soil bacterium.

Enterobacter cloacae is a facultative anaerobic bacterium to be an important cause of nosocomial infection. However, the isolated E. cloacae GGT036 showed higher furfural-tolerant cellular growth, compared to industrial relevant strains such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 isolated from Mt. Gwanak, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The genomic DNA sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 will provide valuable genetic resources for engineering of industrially relevant strains being tolerant to cellular inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the haloarchaeon Haloterrigena jeotgali type strain A29(T) isolated from salt-fermented food.

Haloterrigena jeotgali is a halophilic archaeon within the family Natrialbaceae that was isolated from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional Korean salt-fermented food. A29(T) is the type strain of H. jeotgali, and is a Gram-negative staining, non-motile, rod-shaped archaeon that grows in 10 %-30 % (w/v) NaCl. We present the annotated H. jeotgali A29(T) genome sequence along with a summary of its features. The 4,131,621 bp genome with a GC content of 64.9 % comprises 4,215 protein-coding genes and 127 RNA genes. The sequence can provide useful information on genetic mechanisms that enable haloarchaea to endure a hypersaline environment.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haladaptatus cibarius type strain D43T isolated from fermented seafood

An extremely halophilic archaeon, Haladaptatus cibarius D43 T , was isolated from traditional Korean salt-rich fermented seafood. Strain D43 T shows the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.7 %) with Haladaptatus litoreus RO1-28 T , is Gram-negative staining, motile, and extremely halophilic. Despite potential industrial applications of extremely halophilic archaea, their genome characteristics remain obscure. Here, we describe the whole genome sequence and annotated features of strain D43 T . The 3,926,724 bp genome includes 4,092 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes (including 6 rRNA and 49 tRNA genes) with an average G?+?C content of 57.76 %.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus cereus FORC_005, a food-borne pathogen from the soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg.

Due to abundant contamination in various foods, the pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus has been widely studied in physiological and molecular level. B. cereus FORC_005 was isolated from a Korean side dish, soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg in South Korea. While 21 complete genome sequences of B. cereus has been announced to date, this strain was completely sequenced, analyzed, and compared with other complete genome sequences of B. cereus to elucidate the distinct pathogenic features of a strain isolated in South Korea. The genomic DNA containing a circular chromosome consists of 5,349,617-bp with a GC content of 35.29 %. It was predicted to have 5170 open reading frames, 106 tRNA genes, and 42 rRNA genes. Among the predicted ORFs, 3892 ORFs were annotated to encode functional proteins (75.28 %) and 1278 ORFs were predicted to encode hypothetical proteins (748 conserved and 530 non-conserved hypothetical proteins). This genome information of B. cereus FORC_005 would extend our understanding of its pathogenesis in genomic level for efficient control of its contamination in foods and further food poisoning.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic insights into the taxonomic status of the three subspecies of Bacillus subtilis.

Bacillus subtilis contains three subspecies, i.e., subspecies subtilis, spizizenii, and inaquosorum. As these subspecies are phenotypically indistinguishable, their differentiation has relied on phylogenetic analysis of multiple protein-coding gene sequences. B. subtilis subsp. inaquosorum is a recently proposed taxon that encompasses strain KCTC 13429(T) and related strains, which were previously classified as members of subspecies spizizenii. However, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values among the three subspecies raised a question as to their independence. Thus, we evaluated the taxonomic status of subspecies inaquosorum using genome-based comparative analysis. In contrast to the previous experimental values of DDH, the inter-genomic relatedness inferred by average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that subspecies inaquosorum and spizizenii were sufficiently different from subspecies subtilis and hence raised the possibility that the former two could be classified as separate species from B. subtilis. The genome-based tree also supported the separation of the two subspecies from B. subtilis. The exclusive presence of a subtilin synthesis system in subspecies spizizenii was a remarkable genetic characteristic that could even distinguish subspecies spizizenii from subspecies inaquosorum in addition to the low ANI values (<95%). Conclusively, the genome-based data obtained in this study demonstrated that subspecies inaquosorum and spizizenii are clearly distinguished from subspecies subtilis, and raises the possibility that these two subspecies could be classified as separate species from B. subtilis. In addition, the low ANI values between subspecies inaquosorum and spizizenii and the exclusive presence of subtilin synthesis genes in subspecies spizizenii also suggest circumscription of these two subspecies at the species level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395, which produces plecomacrolide against phytopathogenic fungi.

Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395, which produces antifungal metabolites with bafilomycin derivatives, including bafilomycin C1-amide, was isolated from a soil sample at Mt. Jiri, South Korea. Here, we report its draft genome sequence, which contains 8.04 Mb with 73.6% G+C content and 7,810 protein-coding genes. Copyright © 2014 Hwang et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the chromate-resistant bacterium Leucobacter salsicius type strain M1-8(T.).

Leucobacter salsicius M1-8(T) is a member of the Microbacteriaceae family within the class Actinomycetales. This strain is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium and was previously isolated from a Korean fermented food. Most members of the genus Leucobacter are chromate-resistant and this feature could be exploited in biotechnological applications. However, the genus Leucobacter is poorly characterized at the genome level, despite its potential importance. Thus, the present study determined the features of Leucobacter salsicius M1-8(T), as well as its genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprised 3,185,418 bp with a G+C content of 64.5%, which included 2,865 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA genes. This strain possessed two predicted genes associated with chromate resistance, which might facilitate its growth in heavy metal-rich environments.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the moderately halophilic bacterium Salinicoccus carnicancri type strain Crm(T) (= DSM 23852(T)).

Salinicoccus carnicancri Jung et al. 2010 belongs to the genus Salinicoccus in the family Staphylococcaceae. Members of the Salinicoccus are moderately halophilic and originate from various salty environments. The halophilic features of the Salinicoccus suggest their possible uses in biotechnological applications, such as biodegradation and fermented food production. However, the genus Salinicoccus is poorly characterized at the genome level, despite its potential importance. This study presents the draft genome sequence of S. carnicancri strain Crm(T) and its annotation. The 2,673,309 base pair genome contained 2,700 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes with an average G+C content of 47.93 mol%. It was notable that the strain carried 72 predicted genes associated with osmoregulation, which suggests the presence of beneficial functions that facilitate growth in high-salt environments.


July 7, 2019  |  

Divergent evolution of multiple virus-resistance genes from a progenitor in Capsicum spp.

Plants have evolved hundreds of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich domain proteins (NLRs) as potential intracellular immune receptors, but the evolutionary mechanism leading to the ability to recognize specific pathogen effectors is elusive. Here, we cloned Pvr4 (a Potyvirus resistance gene in Capsicum annuum) and Tsw (a Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance gene in Capsicum chinense) via a genome-based approach using independent segregating populations. The genes both encode typical NLRs and are located at the same locus on pepper chromosome 10. Despite the fact that these two genes recognize completely different viral effectors, the genomic structures and coding sequences of the two genes are strikingly similar. Phylogenetic studies revealed that these two immune receptors diverged from a progenitor gene of a common ancestor. Our results suggest that sequence variations caused by gene duplication and neofunctionalization may underlie the evolution of the ability to specifically recognize different effectors. These findings thereby provide insight into the divergent evolution of plant immune receptors.© 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.


July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544(T), a food-borne pathogen, isolated from a child’s throat.

Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of severe diseases: meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of this pathogen remains largely unknown. To determine its pathogenesis at the genomic level, the genome of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544(T) was completely sequenced and analyzed.The genomic DNA, containing a circular chromosome and three plasmids, is composed of 4,511,265 bp with a GC content of 56.71%, containing 4380 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 22 rRNA genes, and 83 tRNA genes. The plasmids, designated pCSK29544_p1, pCSK29544_p2, and pCSK29544_p3, were 93,905-bp, 4938-bp, and 53,457-bp with GC contents of 57.02, 54.88, and 50.07%, respectively. They were also predicted to have 72, 6, and 57 ORFs without RNA genes.The strain ATCC 29544(T) genome has ompA and ibeB-homologous cusC genes, probably associated with the invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). In addition, gene clusters for siderophore production (iucABCD/iutA) and the related transport system (eitCBAD) were detected in pCSK29544_p1 plasmid, indicating better iron uptake ability for survival. Furthermore, to survive under extremely dry condition like milk powder, this genome has gene clusters for biosynthesis of capsular proteins (CSK29544_00281-00284) and cellulose (CSK29544_01124-01127) for biofilm formation and a gene cluster for utilization of sialic acid in the milk (nanKTAR). The genome information of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544(T) would provide further understanding of its pathogenesis at the molecular level for the regulation of pathogenicity and the development of a rapid detection method using biomarkers.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus jensenii strain SNUV360, a probiotic for treatment of bacterial vaginosis isolated from the vagina of a healthy Korean woman.

Lactobacillus jensenii SNUV360 is a potential probiotic strain that shows antimicrobial activity for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we present the complete genomic sequence of L. jensenii SNUV360, isolated from a vaginal sample from a healthy Korean woman. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. Copyright © 2017 Lee et al.


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