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October 18, 2017

Echinochloa crus-galli genome analysis provides insight into its adaptation and invasiveness as a weed.

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is a pernicious weed in agricultural fields worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying its success in the absence of human intervention are presently unknown. Here we report a draft genome sequence of the hexaploid species E. crus-galli, i.e., a 1.27?Gb assembly representing 90.7% of the predicted genome size. An extremely large repertoire of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases associated with detoxification are found. Two gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of an allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and a phytoalexin momilactone A are found in the E. crus-galli genome, respectively. The allelochemical DIMBOA gene cluster is activated…

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October 2, 2017

Complete genome analysis of Lactobacillus fermentum SK152 from kimchi reveals genes associated with its antimicrobial activity.

Research findings on probiotics highlight their importance in repressing harmful bacteria, leading to more extensive research on their potential applications. We analysed the genome of Lactobacillus fermentum SK152, which was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented vegetable dish kimchi, to determine the genetic makeup and genetic factors responsible for the antimicrobial activity of L. fermentum SK152 and performed a comparative genome analysis with other L. fermentum strains. The genome of L. fermentum SK152 was found to comprise a complete circular chromosome of 2092 273 bp, with an estimated GC content of 51.9% and 2184 open reading frames. It consisted of…

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October 1, 2017

Construction of efficient xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a synthetic isozyme system of xylose reductase from Scheffersomyces stipitis.

Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for ethanol production from xylose, the abundant sugar in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Development of engineered S. cerevisiae able to utilize xylose effectively is crucial for economical and sustainable production of fuels. To this end, the xylose-metabolic genes (XYL1, XYL2 and XYL3) from Scheffersomyces stipitis have been introduced into S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strains, however, often exhibit undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation. This work was undertaken to construct an improved xylose-fermenting strain by developing a synthetic isozyme system of xylose reductase (XR). The DXS strain having both wild…

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September 28, 2017

Complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri strain SNUDS-18 isolated from a farmed duck in South Korea.

This study aimed to determine the complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri strain SNUDS-18 isolated from a farmed duck in South Korea.Genomic DNA was sequenced using a PacBio RS II system. The obtained genome was annotated and antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified.The sequenced genome possessed a mecA homologue (mecA1) that was almost identical to that of other oxacillin-susceptible S. sciuri strains, whereas the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) was not detected. Moreover, various antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, phenicols, tetracycline and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antimicrobials were identified.The SNUDS-18 genome and its associated genomic data…

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September 25, 2017

PCR and omics based techniques to study the diversity, ecology and biology of anaerobic fungi: Insights, challenges andopportunities.

Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are common inhabitants of the digestive tract of mammalian herbivores, and in the rumen, can account for up to 20% of the microbial biomass. Anaerobic fungi play a primary role in the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. They also have a syntrophic interaction with methanogenic archaea, which increases their fiber degradation activity. To date, nine anaerobic fungal genera have been described, with further novel taxonomic groupings known to exist based on culture-independent molecular surveys. However, the true extent of their diversity may be even more extensively underestimated as anaerobic fungi continue being discovered in yet unexplored…

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September 21, 2017

Draft genome sequence of Aspergillus persii NIBRFGC000004109, which has antibacterial activity against plant-pathogenic bacteria.

The fungus Aspergillus persii strain NIBRFGC000004109 is capable of producing penicillic acid and showed antibacterial activity against various plant-pathogenic bacteria, including Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of A. persii The assembly comprises 38,414,373 bp, with 12 scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

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September 1, 2017

Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP3 provides candidates of survival-related genetic factors.

Lactobacillus plantarum is found in various environmental niches such as in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal host or a fermented food. This species isolated from a certain environment is known to possess a variety of properties according to inhabited environment's adaptation. However, a causal relationship of a genetic factor and phenotype affected by a specific environment has not been systematically comprehended. L. plantarum GB-LP3 strain was isolated from Korean traditional fermented vegetable and the whole genome of GB-LP3 was sequenced. Comparative genome analysis of GB-LP3, with other 14 L. plantarum strains, was conducted. In addition, genomic island regions were…

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August 29, 2017

Gapless genome assembly of Colletotrichum higginsianum reveals chromosome structure and association of transposable elements with secondary metabolite gene clusters.

The ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum causes anthracnose disease of brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous versions of the genome sequence were highly fragmented, causing errors in the prediction of protein-coding genes and preventing the analysis of repetitive sequences and genome architecture. Here, we re-sequenced the genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and, in combination with optical map data, this provided a gapless assembly of all twelve chromosomes except for the ribosomal DNA repeat cluster on chromosome 7. The more accurate gene annotation made possible by this new assembly revealed a large repertoire of secondary metabolism (SM)…

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July 20, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. 275, producing extracellular cellulolytic, xylanolytic and ligninolytic enzymes.

Technologies for degradation of three major components of lignocellulose (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) are needed to efficiently utilize lignocellulose. Here, we report Bacillus sp. 275 isolated from a mudflat exhibiting various lignocellulolytic activities including cellulase, xylanase, laccase and peroxidase in the cell culture supernatant. The complete genome of Bacillus sp. 275 strain contains 3832 protein cording sequences and an average G+C content of 46.32% on one chromosome (4045,581bp) and one plasmid (6389bp). The genes encoding enzymes related to the degradation of cellulose, xylan and lignin were detected in the Bacillus sp. 275 genome. In addition, the genes encoding glucosidases…

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July 14, 2017

Genomic insights into the virulence and salt tolerance of Staphylococcus equorum.

To shed light on the genetic background behind the virulence and salt tolerance of Staphylococcus equorum, we performed comparative genome analysis of six S. equorum strains. Data on four previously published genome sequences were obtained from the NCBI database, while those on strain KM1031 displaying resistance to multiple antibiotics and strain C2014 causing haemolysis were determined in this study. Examination of the pan-genome of five of the six S. equorum strains showed that the conserved core genome retained the genes for general physiological processes and survival of the species. In this comparative genomic analysis, the factors that distinguish the strains…

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June 8, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio coralliilyticus 58, isolated from Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae.

We report here the complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain 58, which was originally isolated from inactive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae in Japan. The assembled genome consisted of two chromosomes and one plasmid. These data will provide valuable information and important insights into the biodiversity of this organism. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

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June 1, 2017

Complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from farmed duck, Republic of Korea.

Staphylococcus cohnii has become increasingly recognized as a potential pathogen of clinically significant nosocomial and farm animal infections. This study was designed to determine the genome of a multidrug-resistant S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from a farmed duck in Korea.Genomic DNA was sequenced using the PacBio RS II system. The complete genome was annotated and the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified.The annotated 2,625,703 bp genome contained various antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to ß-lactam, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols and trimethoprim. The virulence-associated three synergistic hemolysins have been identified in the strain.To the best of our…

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May 15, 2017

Comparative genomic analysis reveals genetic features related to the virulence of Bacillus cereus FORC_013.

Bacillus cereus is well known as a gastrointestinal pathogen that causes food-borne illness. In the present study, we sequenced the complete genome of B. cereus FORC_013 isolated from fried eel in South Korea. To extend our understanding of the genomic characteristics of FORC_013, we conducted a comparative analysis with the published genomes of other B. cereus strains.We fully assembled the single circular chromosome (5,418,913 bp) and one plasmid (259,749 bp); 5511 open reading frames (ORFs) and 283 ORFs were predicted for the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. Moreover, we detected that the enterotoxin (NHE, HBL, CytK) induces food-borne illness with diarrheal symptom, and…

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