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Authors: Kim, Nam-Hoon and Jayakodi, Murukarthick and Lee, Sang-Choon and Choi, Beom-Soon and Jang, Woojong and Lee, Junki and Kim, Hyun Hee and Waminal, Nomar E and Lakshmanan, Meiyappan and van Nguyen, Binh and Lee, Yun Sun and Park, Hyun-Seung and Koo, Hyun Jo and Park, Jee Young and Perumal, Sampath and Joh, Ho Jun and Lee, Hana and Kim, Jinkyung and Kim, In Seo and Kim, Kyunghee and Koduru, Lokanand and Kang, Kyo Bin and Sung, Sang Hyun and Yu, Yeisoo and Park, Daniel S and Choi, Doil and Seo, Eunyoung and Kim, Seungill and Kim, Young-Chang and Hyun, Dong Yun and Park, Youn-Il and Kim, Changsoo and Lee, Tae-Ho and Kim, Hyun Uk and Soh, Moon Soo and Lee, Yi and In, Jun Gyo and Kim, Heui-Soo and Kim, Yong-Min and Yang, Deok-Chun and Wing, Rod A and Lee, Dong-Yup and Paterson, Andrew H and Yang, Tae-Jin

Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59 352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two intercontinental migrations. Two whole genome duplications (WGD) occurred in the family Araliaceae (including Panax) after divergence with the Apiaceae, the more recent one contributing to the ability of P. ginseng to overwinter, enabling it to spread broadly through the Northern Hemisphere. Functional and evolutionary analyses suggest that production of pharmacologically important dammarane-type ginsenosides originated in Panax and are produced largely in shoot tissues and transported to roots; that newly evolved P. ginseng fatty acid desaturases increase freezing tolerance; and that unprecedented retention of chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes enables efficient photosynthesis under low light. A genome-scale metabolic network provides a holistic view of Panax ginsenoside biosynthesis. This study provides valuable resources for improving medicinal values of ginseng either through genomics-assisted breeding or metabolic engineering.© 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Journal: Plant biotechnology journal
DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12926
Year: 2018

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