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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Isoform sequencing and state-of-art applications for unravelling complexity of plant transcriptomes

Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing developed by PacBio, also called third-generation sequencing (TGS), offers longer reads than the second-generation sequencing (SGS). Given its ability to obtain full-length transcripts without assembly, isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) of transcriptomes by PacBio is advantageous for genome annotation, identification of novel genes and isoforms, as well as the discovery of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). In addition, Iso-Seq gives access to the direct detection of alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation (APA), gene fusion, and DNA modifications. Such applications of Iso-Seq facilitate the understanding of gene structure, post-transcriptional regulatory networks, and subsequently proteomic diversity. In this review, we summarize its…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Single Molecule Sequencing: new outlooks for solving genome assembly and transcripts identification challenges

In this review, we introduce a novel sequencing technology, named Single Molecule Real Time sequencing. Also called Single Molecule Sequencing, as it do not requires any amplification, this new technology is able to pro- duce much longer reads than previous NGS technologies such as Illumina. This read size improvements, which can reach 150 fold, will solve many challenges caused by the actual NGS technologies. Short NGS reads, reach- ing a maximum size of 300 bp, make it hard to reconstitute a whole genome and are always leading to fragmented genome assembly. It is also difficult to correctly infer transcript quantification…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Capturing a long look at our genetic library.

Long-read sequencing, coupled to cDNA capture, provides an unrivaled view of the transcriptome of chromosome 21, revealing surprises about the splicing of long noncoding RNAs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Introduction to isoform sequencing using Pacific Biosciences technology (Iso-Seq)

Alternative RNA splicing is a known phenomenon, but we still do not have a complete catalog of isoforms that explain variability in the human transcriptome. We have made significant progress in developing methods to study variability of the transcriptome, but we are far away of having a complete picture of the transcriptome. The initial methods to study gene expression were based on cloning of cDNAs and Sanger sequencing. The strategy was labor-intensive and expensive. With the development of microarrays, different methods based on exon arrays and tiling arrays provided valuable information about RNA expression. However, the microarray presented significant limitations.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Next-generation sequencing for pathogen detection and identification

Over the past decade, the field of genomics has seen such drastic improvements in sequencing chemistries that high-throughput sequencing, or next-generation sequencing (NGS), is being applied to generate data across many disciplines. NGS instruments are becoming less expensive, faster, and smaller, and therefore are being adopted in an increasing number of laboratories, including clinical laboratories. Thus far, clinical use of NGS has been mostly focused on the human genome, for purposes such as characterizing the molecular basis of cancer or for diagnosing and understanding the basis of rare genetic disorders. There are, however, an increasing number of examples whereby NGS…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-Genome Alignment and Comparative Annotation.

Rapidly improving sequencing technology coupled with computational developments in sequence assembly are making reference-quality genome assembly economical. Hundreds of vertebrate genome assemblies are now publicly available, and projects are being proposed to sequence thousands of additional species in the next few years. Such dense sampling of the tree of life should give an unprecedented new understanding of evolution and allow a detailed determination of the events that led to the wealth of biodiversity around us. To gain this knowledge, these new genomes must be compared through genome alignment (at the sequence level) and comparative annotation (at the gene level). However,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The new world of isoform sequencing

Not too long ago, the life sciences community was still debating whether sequencers would ever overtake microarrays as the preferred means of measuring gene expression. Today, not only have sequencers become the standard workhorse for gene expression studies, but newer sequencing technology has delivered the ability to generate novel expression data even in the most well-characterized cells or organisms. Truly, it is a remarkable time for comprehensive studies of which genes are being transcribed, with the goal of providing functional insight into various biological processes. The key advantage sequencing holds over microarrays is its ability to deeply survey an entire…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing comes of age: applications and utilities for medical diagnostics.

Short read massive parallel sequencing has emerged as a standard diagnostic tool in the medical setting. However, short read technologies have inherent limitations such as GC bias, difficulties mapping to repetitive elements, trouble discriminating paralogous sequences, and difficulties in phasing alleles. Long read single molecule sequencers resolve these obstacles. Moreover, they offer higher consensus accuracies and can detect epigenetic modifications from native DNA. The first commercially available long read single molecule platform was the RS system based on PacBio’s single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology, which has since evolved into their RSII and Sequel systems. Here we capsulize how SMRT…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Computational analysis of alternative splicing in plant genomes.

Computational analyses play crucial roles in characterizing splicing isoforms in plant genomes. In this review, we provide a survey of computational tools used in recently published, genome-scale splicing analyses in plants. We summarize the commonly used software and pipelines for read mapping, isoform reconstruction, isoform quantification, and differential expression analysis. We also discuss methods for analyzing long reads and the strategies to combine long and short reads in identifying splicing isoforms. We review several tools for characterizing local splicing events, splicing graphs, coding potential, and visualizing splicing isoforms. We further discuss the procedures for identifying conserved splicing isoforms across plant…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Next generation sequencing technology: Advances and applications.

Impressive progress has been made in the field of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Through advancements in the fields of molecular biology and technical engineering, parallelization of the sequencing reaction has profoundly increased the total number of produced sequence reads per run. Current sequencing platforms allow for a previously unprecedented view into complex mixtures of RNA and DNA samples. NGS is currently evolving into a molecular microscope finding its way into virtually every fields of biomedical research. In this chapter we review the technical background of the different commercially available NGS platforms with respect to template generation and the sequencing reaction…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Defining cell identity with single cell omics.

Cells are a fundamental unit of life, and the ability to study the phenotypes and behaviors of individual cells is crucial to understanding the workings of complex biological systems. Cell phenotypes (epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) exhibit dramatic heterogeneity between and within the different cell types and states underlying cellular functional diversity. Cell genotypes can also display heterogeneity throughout an organism, in the form of somatic genetic variation-most notably in the emergence and evolution of tumors. Recent technical advances in single-cell isolation and the development of omics approaches sensitive enough to reveal these aspects of cell identity have enabled a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Reviving the Transcriptome Studies: An Insight into the Emergence of Single-molecule Transcriptome Sequencing

Advances in transcriptomics have provided an exceptional opportunity to study functional implications of the genetic variability. Technologies such as RNA-Seq have emerged as state-of-the-art techniques for transcriptome analysis that take advantage of high-throughput next-generation sequencing. However, similar to their predecessors, these approaches continue to impose major challenges on full-length transcript structure identification, primarily due to inherent limitations of read length. With the development of single-molecule sequencing (SMS) from PacBio, a growing number of studies on the transcriptome of different organisms have been reported. SMS has emerged as advantageous for comprehensive genome annotation including identification of novel genes/isoforms, long non-coding RNAs…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Avian transcriptomics: opportunities and challenges

Recent developments in next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly facilitated the study of whole transcriptomes in model and non-model species. Studying the transcriptome and how it changes across a variety of biological conditions has had major implications for our understanding of how the genome is regulated in different contexts, and how to interpret adaptations and the phenotype of an organism. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential of these new technologies for the study of avian transcriptomics, and to summarise how transcriptomics has been applied in ornithology. A total of 81 peer-reviewed scientific articles that used transcriptomics to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Current progress in EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human tumor virus discovered more than 50 years ago. EBV-associated lymphomagenesis is still a significant viral-associated disease as it involves a diverse range of pathologies, especially B-cell lymphomas. Recent development of high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies and in vivo mouse models have significantly promoted our understanding of the fundamental molecular mechanisms which drive these cancers and allowed for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. This review will highlight the current advances in EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas, focusing on transcriptional regulation, chromosome aberrations, in vivo studies of EBV-mediated lymphomagenesis, as well as the treatment strategies to target viral-associated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Accurate determination of bacterial abundances in human metagenomes using full-length 16S sequencing reads

DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified marker genes, especially but not limited to the 16S rRNA gene, is perhaps the most common approach for profiling microbial communities. Due to technological constraints of commonly available DNA sequencing, these approaches usually take the form of short reads sequenced from a narrow, targeted variable region, with a corresponding loss of taxonomic resolution relative to the full length marker gene. We use Pacific Biosciences single-molecule, real-time circular consensus sequencing to sequence amplicons spanning the entire length of the 16S rRNA gene. However, this sequencing technology suffers from high sequencing error rate that needs to be addressed…

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