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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Toward a complete North American Borrelia miyamotoi genome.

Borrelia miyamotoi, of the relapsing-fever spirochete group, is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human illness in the northern hemisphere. Here, we present the chromosome, eight extrachromosomal linear plasmids, and a draft sequence for five circular and one linear plasmid of a Borrelia miyamotoi strain isolated from an Ixodes sp. tick from Connecticut, USA. Copyright © 2017 Kingry et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Prevalence and molecular characterization of mcr-1-positive Salmonella strains recovered from clinical specimens in China.

The recently discovered colistin resistance element, mcr-1, adds to the list of antimicrobial resistance genes that rapidly erode the antimicrobial efficacy of not only the commonly used antibiotics but also the last-line agents of carbapenems and colistin. This study investigated the prevalence of the mobile colistin resistance determinant mcr-1 in Salmonella strains recovered from clinical settings in China and the transmission potential of mcr-1-bearing mobile elements harbored by such isolates. The mcr-1 gene was recoverable in 1.4% of clinical isolates tested, with the majority of them belonging to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. These isolates exhibited diverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A phage-like IncY plasmid carrying the mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli from a pig farm in China.

We report here a new type of plasmid that carries the mcr-1 gene, the pMCR-1-P3 plasmid, harbored in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a pig farm in China. pMCR-1-P3 belongs to the IncY incompatibility group and is a phage-like plasmid that contains a large portion of phage-related sequences. The backbone of this plasmid is different from that of other mcr-1-carrying plasmids reported previously. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of IncA/C plasmid replication and maintenance genes and development of a plasmid multilocus sequence typing scheme.

Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including blaCMY and blaNDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The recent emergence in hospitals of multidrug-resistant community-associated sequence type 1 and spa type t127 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus investigated by whole-genome sequencing: Implications for screening.

Community-associated spa type t127/t922 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence increased from 1%-7% in Ireland between 2010-2015. This study tracked the spread of 89 such isolates from June 2013-June 2016. These included 78 healthcare-associated and 11 community associated-MRSA isolates from a prolonged hospital outbreak (H1) (n = 46), 16 other hospitals (n = 28), four other healthcare facilities (n = 4) and community-associated sources (n = 11). Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, DNA microarray profiling and whole-genome sequencing. Minimum spanning trees were generated following core-genome multilocus sequence typing and pairwise single nucleotide variation (SNV) analysis was performed. All isolates were sequence…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complex routes of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium transmission revealed by genome sequencing.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is a leading cause of nosocomial infection. Here, we describe the utility of whole-genome sequencing in defining nosocomial VREfm transmission.A retrospective study at a single hospital in the United Kingdom identified 342 patients with E. faecium bloodstream infection over 7 years. Of these, 293 patients had a stored isolate and formed the basis for the study. The first stored isolate from each case was sequenced (200 VREfm [197 vanA, 2 vanB, and 1 isolate containing both vanA and vanB], 93 vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium) and epidemiological data were collected. Genomes were also available for E. faecium associated…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolution and comparative genomics of pAQU-like conjugative plasmids in Vibrio species.

To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process.pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids.The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ~160 to 206?kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions. Eight plasmids were found to carry a typical MDR region, which contained various accessory and resistance genes, including ISCR1-blaPER-1-bearing complex class 1 integrons, ISCR2-floR, ISCR2-tet(D)-tetR-ISCR2, qnrVC6, a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

IncFII conjugative plasmid-mediated transmission of blaNDM-1 elements among animal-borne Escherichia coli strains.

This study aims to investigate the prevalence and transmission dynamics of the blaNDM-1 gene in animal Escherichia coli strains. Two IncFII blaNDM-1-encoding plasmids with only minor structural variation in the MDR region, pHNEC46-NDM and pHNEC55-NDM, were found to be responsible for the transmission of blaNDM-1 in these strains. The blaNDM-1 gene can be incorporated into plasmids and stably inherited in animal-borne E. coli strains that can be maintained in animal gut microflora even without carbapenem selection pressure. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic and functional characterization of blaCTX-M-199, a novel tazobactam and sulbactam resistance-encoding gene located in a conjugative mcr-1-bearing IncI2 plasmid.

The study reported the genetic and functional characterization of a novel CTX-M-199 ß-lactamase, which was encoded by a blaCTX-M-64 variant gene found in a conjugative mcr-1-bearing IncI2 plasmid and exhibited resistance to ß-lactamase inhibitors, tazobactam and sulbactam. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Expanding landscapes of the diversified mcr-1-bearing plasmid reservoirs.

Polymyxin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic that can disrupt bacterial cell membrane by interacting with its lipopolysaccharide molecules and is used as a last resort drug against lethal infections by the carbapenem-resistant superbugs (like NDM-1). However, global discovery of the MCR-1 colistin resistance dramatically challenges the newly renewed interest in colistin for clinical use.The mcr-1-harboring plasmids were acquired from swine and human Escherichia coli isolated in China, from 2015 to 2016, and subjected to Illumina PacBio RSII and Hi-Seq2000 for full genome sequencing. PCR was applied to close the gap of the assembled contigs. Ori-Finder was employed to predict the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chromosomal 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase RmtE1 in Escherichia coli sequence type 448.

We identified rmtE1, an uncommon 16S ribosomal methyltransferase gene, in an aminoglycoside- and cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 448 clinical strain co-harboring blaCMY-2. Long-read sequencing revealed insertion of a 101,257-bp fragment carrying both resistance genes to the chromosome. Our findings underscore E. coli sequence type 448 as a potential high-risk multidrug-resistant clone.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative sequence analysis of multidrug-resistant IncA/C plasmids from Salmonella enterica

Determinants of multidrug resistance (MDR) are often encoded on mobile elements, such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which have the potential to transfer among foodborne pathogens, as well as to other virulent pathogens, increasing the threats these traits pose to human and veterinary health. Our understanding of MDR among Salmonella has been limited by the lack of closed plasmid genomes for comparisons across resistance phenotypes, due to difficulties in effectively separating the DNA of these high-molecular weight, low-copy-number plasmids from chromosomal DNA. To resolve this problem, we demonstrate an efficient protocol for isolating, sequencing and closing IncA/C plasmids from Salmonella…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic characterization of mcr-1-bearing plasmids to depict molecular mechanisms underlying dissemination of the colistin resistance determinant.

To analyse and compare mcr-1-bearing plasmids from animal Escherichia coli isolates, and to investigate potential mechanisms underlying dissemination of mcr-1.Ninety-seven ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from pig farms in China were screened for the mcr-1 gene. Fifteen mcr-1-positive strains were subjected to molecular characterization and bioinformatic analysis of the mcr-1-bearing plasmids that they harboured.Three major types of mcr-1-bearing plasmids were recovered: IncX4 (~33 kb), IncI2 (~60 kb) and IncHI2 (~216-280 kb), among which the IncX4 and IncI2 plasmids were found to harbour the mcr-1 gene only, whereas multiple resistance elements including blaCTX-M, blaCMY, blaTEM, fosA, qnrS, floR and oqxAB were…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Detection and genetic features of MCR-1-producing plasmid in human Escherichia coli infection in South Korea.

The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was identified for the first time from a hospitalized patient in South Korea. The mcr-1 gene was successfully transferred to E. coli J53 recipient and conferred resistance to colistin in the recipient. The mcr-1-harboring plasmid possessed a typical IncI2 group and did not have the mcr-1-associated ISApl1 element. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

IS26-mediated formation of a virulence and resistance plasmid in Salmonella Enteritidis.

To characterize a novel virulence-resistance plasmid pSE380T carried by a Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis clinical strain SE380.The plasmid pSE380T was conjugated to Escherichia coli strain J53 and sequenced by PacBio RSII, followed by subsequent annotation and genetic analysis.Sequence analysis of this plasmid revealed that the entire Salmonella Enteritidis-specific virulence plasmid, pSEN, had been incorporated into an IncHI2 MDR plasmid, which comprises the cephalosporin and fosfomycin resistance determinants blaCTX-M-14 and fosA3. Based on BLAST analysis and scrutiny of insertion footprints, the insertion event was found to involve a replicative transposition process mediated by IS26, an IS element frequently detected in various…

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