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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Resistance to ceftazidime-avibactam is due to tranposition of KPC in a porin-deficient strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae with increased efflux activity.

Ceftazidime-avibactam is an antibiotic with activity against serine beta-lactamases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Recently, reports have emerged of KPC-producing isolates resistant to this antibiotic, including a report of a wild-type KPC-3 producing sequence type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae that was resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam. We describe a detailed analysis of this isolate, in the context of two other closely related KPC-3 producing isolates, recovered from the same patient. Both isolates encoded a nonfunctional OmpK35, whereas we demonstrate that a novel T333N mutation in OmpK36, present in the ceftazidime-avibactam resistant isolate, reduced the activity of this porin and impacted ceftazidime-avibactam susceptibility. In…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Distinct mechanisms of acquisition of mcr-1 -bearing plasmid by Salmonella strains recovered from animals and food samples.

Since the report of its discovery in E. coli in late 2015, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been detected in various bacterial species in clinical setting and various environmental niches. However, the transmission mechanisms of this gene in Salmonella is less defined. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study to characterize the genetic features of mcr-1-positive Salmonella strains isolated from animals and foods. Our data revealed that Salmonella recovered from animals and food specimens exhibited highly different PFGE patterns, and acquired mcr-1-encoding plasmids via different mechanism. Plasmids harboring mcr-1 in Salmonella food isolates were all conjugative and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

CTX-M-15-producing Shewanella sp. clinical isolate expressing OXA-535, a chromosome-encoded OXA-48 variant, putative progenitor of the plasmid-encoded OXA-436.

Shewanella spp. constitute a reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants. In a bile sample, we have identified three Extended Spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shewanella sp. JAB-1) isolated from a child suffering from cholangitis. Our objectives were to characterize the genome and the resistome of the first ESBL-producing isolate of the genus Shewanella and determine whether plasmidic exchange occurred between the three-bacterial species. Bacterial isolates were characterized using MALDI-TOF, standard biochemical tools and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Shewanella sp JAB-1 and ESBL gene-carrying plasmids were characterized using PacBio and Illumina whole genome sequencing, respectively. The Shewanella sp JAB-1…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of oqxAB in Escherichia coli isolates from animals, retail meat, and human patients in Guangzhou, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic elements of oqxAB among Escherichia coli isolates from animals, retail meat, and humans (patients with infection or colonization) in Guangzhou, China. A total of 1,354 E. coli isolates were screened for oqxAB by PCR. Fifty oqxAB-positive isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), S1-PFGE, genetic environment analysis, plasmid replicon typing, and plasmid sequencing. oqxAB was detected in 172 (33.79%), 60 (17.34%), and 90 (18.07%) E. coli isolates from animal, food, and human, respectively. High clonal diversity was observed among oqxAB-positive isolates. In…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of four multidrug resistance plasmids captured from the sediments of an urban coastal wetland.

Self-transmissible and mobilizable plasmids contribute to the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria by enabling the horizontal transfer of acquired antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to capture and characterize self-transmissible and mobilizable resistance plasmids from a coastal wetland impacted by urban stormwater runoff and human wastewater during the rainy season. Four plasmids were captured, two self-transmissible and two mobilizable, using both mating and enrichment approaches. Plasmid genomes, sequenced with either Illumina or PacBio platforms, revealed representatives of incompatibility groups IncP-6, IncR, IncN3, and IncF. The plasmids ranged in size from 36 to 144 kb and encoded known…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Widespread distribution of mcr-1-bearing bacteria in the ecosystem, 2015 to 2016.

The recently discovered colistin resistance-encoding element, mcr-1, adds to the list of mobile resistance genes whose products rapidly erode the antimicrobial efficacy of not only the commonly used antibiotics, but also the last line agents of carbapenems and colistin. The relative prevalence of mcr-1-bearing strains in various ecological niches including 1,371 food samples, 480 animal faecal samples, 150 human faecal samples and 34 water samples was surveyed using a novel in-house method. Bacteria bearing mcr-1 were commonly detected in water (71% of samples), animal faeces (51%), food products (36%), and exhibited stable carriage in 28% of human subjects surveyed. Such…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

De novo design and synthesis of a 30-cistron translation-factor module.

Two of the many goals of synthetic biology are synthesizing large biochemical systems and simplifying their assembly. While several genes have been assembled together by modular idempotent cloning, it is unclear if such simplified strategies scale to very large constructs for expression and purification of whole pathways. Here we synthesize from oligodeoxyribonucleotides a completely de-novo-designed, 58-kb multigene DNA. This BioBrick plasmid insert encodes 30 of the 31 translation factors of the PURE translation system, each His-tagged and in separate transcription cistrons. Dividing the insert between three high-copy expression plasmids enables the bulk purification of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and translation factors…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of ESBL disseminating plasmids.

Bacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute a globally increasing problem that contributes to treatment complications and elevated death rates. The extremely successful dissemination by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae during the latest decades is a result of the combination of mobilization, evolution and horizontal spread of ß-lactamase genes on plasmids. In parallel, spread of these plasmids to particularly well-adapted bacterial clones (outbreak clones) has expanded. In this review we describe ESBL-producing bacteria and the genetic mechanisms for dissemination of ESBL resistance. We describe available methodology for studying plasmids and the importance of including plasmids in epidemiological typing as natural parts of the organisms.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete Sequences and Characterization of Two Novel Plasmids Carrying aac(6′)-Ib-cr and qnrS Gene in Shigella flexneri.

The complete sequences of two previously reported plasmids carrying plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes from Shigella flexneri in China have not been available. The present study using the p5-C3 assembly method revealed that (1) the plasmid pSF07201 with aac(6′)-Ib-cr had 75,335?bp with antibiotic resistance genes CTX-M-3, TEM-1, and FosA3; (2) seven fragments of pSF07201 had more than 99% homology with the seven corresponding plasmids; (3) the other plasmid pSF07202 with qnrS had 47,669?bp with antibiotic resistance gene TEM-1 and 99.95% homology with a segment of pKF362122, which has the qnrS gene from location 162,490 to 163,146. A conjugation and electrotransformation experiment…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Protein O-linked glycosylation in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most lethal phytopathogens in the world. Due to its broad host range, it can cause wilting disease in many plant species of economic interest. In this work, we identified the O-oligosaccharyltransferase (O-OTase) responsible for protein O-glycosylation in R. solanacearum. An analysis of the glycoproteome revealed that 20 proteins, including type IV pilins are substrates of this general glycosylation system. Although multiple glycan forms were identified, the majority of the glycopeptides were modified with a pentasaccharide composed of HexNAc-(Pen)-dHex3, similar to the O antigen subunit present in the lipopolysaccharide of multiple R. solanacearum strains. Disruption…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete sequences of multidrug resistance plasmids bearing rmtD1 and rmtD2 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase genes.

Complete nucleotide sequences were determined for two plasmids bearing rmtD group 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes. pKp64/11 was 78 kb in size, belonged to the IncL/M group, and harbored blaTEM-1b, sul1, qacE?1, dfrA22, and rmtD1 across two multidrug resistance regions (MRRs). pKp368/10 was 170 kb in size, belonged to the IncA/C group, and harbored acrB, sul1, qacE?1, ant(3?)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib, cat, rmtD2, and blaCTX-M-8 across three MRRs. The rmtD-containing regions shared a conserved motif, suggesting a common origin for the two rmtD alleles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative analysis of an IncR plasmid carrying armA, blaDHA-1 and qnrB4 from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 isolates.

The objective of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis with reported IncR plasmids of a Klebsiella pneumoniae IncR plasmid carrying an MDR region.MDR K. pneumoniae isolates were serially identified from two inpatients at a hospital in the USA in 2014. MDR plasmid pYDC676 was fully sequenced, annotated and compared with related plasmids. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE and MLST were also conducted.The K. pneumoniae isolates were identical by PFGE, belonged to ST37 and harboured an identical ~50 kb IncR plasmid (pYDC676). pYDC676 possessed the backbone and multi-IS loci closely related to IncR plasmids reported from aquatic bacteria, as well…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Population structure and acquisition of the vanB resistance determinant in German clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium ST192.

In the context of the global action plan to reduce the dissemination of antibiotic resistances it is of utmost importance to understand the population structure of resistant endemic bacterial lineages and to elucidate how bacteria acquire certain resistance determinants. Vancomycin resistant enterococci represent one such example of a prominent nosocomial pathogen on which nation-wide population analyses on prevalent lineages are scarce and data on how the bacteria acquire resistance, especially of the vanB genotype, are still under debate. With respect to Germany, an increased prevalence of VRE was noted in recent years. Here, invasive infections caused by sequence type ST192…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genome analysis of Candidatus Burkholderia crenata reveals that secondary metabolism may be a key function of the Ardisia crenata leaf nodule symbiosis.

A majority of Ardisia species harbour Burkholderia sp. bacteria within specialized leaf nodules. The bacteria are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured outside of their host. Because the plants cannot develop beyond the seedling stage without their symbionts, the symbiosis is considered obligatory. We sequenced for the first time the genome of Candidatus Burkholderia crenata (Ca. B. crenata), the leaf nodule symbiont of Ardisia crenata. The genome of Ca. B. crenata is the smallest Burkholderia genome to date. It contains a large amount of insertion sequences and pseudogenes and displays features consistent with reductive genome evolution. The genome…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Investigation of proposed ladderane biosynthetic genes from anammox bacteria by heterologous expression in E. coli.

Ladderanes are hydrocarbon chains with three or five linearly concatenated cyclobutane rings that are uniquely produced as membrane lipid components by anammox (anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing) bacteria. By virtue of their angle and torsional strain, ladderanes are unusually energetic compounds, and if produced biochemically by engineered microbes, could serve as renewable, high-energy-density jet fuel components. The biochemistry and genetics underlying the ladderane biosynthetic pathway are unknown, however, previous studies have identified a pool of 34 candidate genes from the anammox bacterium, Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, some or all of which may be involved with ladderane fatty acid biosynthesis. The goal of the present study…

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