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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Coculture of marine Streptomyces sp. with Bacillus sp. produces a newpiperazic acid-bearing cyclic peptide.

Microbial culture conditions in the laboratory, which conventionally involve the cultivation of one strain in one culture vessel, are vastly different from natural microbial environments. Even though perfectly mimicking natural microbial interactions is virtually impossible, the cocultivation of multiple microbial strains is a reasonable strategy to induce the production of secondary metabolites, which enables the discovery of new bioactive natural products. Our coculture of marine Streptomyces and Bacillus strains isolated together from an intertidal mudflat led to discover a new metabolite, dentigerumycin E (1). Dentigerumycin E was determined to be a new cyclic hexapeptide incorporating three piperazic acids, N-OH-Thr, N-OH-Gly,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of the actinoplanic acid pathway in Streptomyces rapamycinicus reveals a genetically conserved synergism with rapamycin.

Actinobacteria possess a great wealth of pathways for production of bioactive compounds. Following advances in genome mining, dozens of natural product (NP) gene clusters are routinely found in each actinobacterial genome; however, the modus operandi of this large arsenal is poorly understood. During investigations of the secondary metabolome of Streptomyces rapamycinicus, the producer of rapamycin, we observed accumulation of two compounds never before reported from this organism. Structural elucidation revealed actinoplanic acid A and its demethyl analogue. Actinoplanic acids (APLs) are potent inhibitors of Ras farnesyltransferase and therefore represent bioactive compounds of medicinal interest. Supported with the unique structure of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Recently published Streptomyces genome sequences.

Many readers of this journal will need no introduction to the bacterial genus Streptomyces, which includes several hundred species, many of which produce biotechnologically useful secondary metabolites. The last 2 years have seen numerous publications describing Streptomyces genome sequences (Table?1), mostly as short genome announcements restricted to just 500 words and therefore allowing little description and analysis. Our aim in this current manuscript is to survey these recent publications and to dig a little deeper where appropriate. The genus Streptomyces is now one of the most highly sequenced, with 19 finished genomic sequences (Table?2) and a further 125 draft assemblies…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Biosynthesis of the novel macrolide antibiotic anthracimycin.

We report the identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the unusual antibiotic anthracimycin (atc) from the marine derived producer strain Streptomyces sp. T676 isolated off St. John’s Island, Singapore. The 53?253 bps atc locus includes a trans-acyltransferase (trans-AT) polyketide synthase (PKS), and heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor resulted in anthracimycin production. Analysis of the atc cluster revealed that anthracimycin is likely generated by four PKS gene products AtcC-AtcF without involvement of post-PKS tailoring enzymes, and a biosynthetic pathway is proposed. The availability of the atc cluster provides a basis for investigating the biosynthesis of anthracimycin and its subsequent bioengineering…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Genome-directed lead discovery: biosynthesis, structure elucidation, and biological evaluation of two families of polyene macrolactams against Trypanosoma brucei.

Marine natural products are an important source of lead compounds against many pathogenic targets. Herein, we report the discovery of lobosamides A-C from a marine actinobacterium, Micromonospora sp., representing three new members of a small but growing family of bacterially produced polyene macrolactams. The lobosamides display growth inhibitory activity against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei (lobosamide A IC50 = 0.8 µM), the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). The biosynthetic gene cluster of the lobosamides was sequenced and suggests a conserved cluster organization among the 26-membered macrolactams. While determination of the relative and absolute configurations of many members of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Variable genetic architectures produce virtually identical molecules in bacterial symbionts of fungus-growing ants.

Small molecules produced by Actinobacteria have played a prominent role in both drug discovery and organic chemistry. As part of a larger study of the actinobacterial symbionts of fungus-growing ants, we discovered a small family of three previously unreported piperazic acid-containing cyclic depsipeptides, gerumycins A-C. The gerumycins are slightly smaller versions of dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide that selectively inhibits a common fungal pathogen, Escovopsis. We had previously identified this molecule from a Pseudonocardia associated with Apterostigma dentigerum, and now we report the molecule from an associate of the more highly derived ant Trachymyrmex cornetzi. The three previously unidentified compounds, gerumycins…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Next generation sequencing of Actinobacteria for the discovery of novel natural products.

Like many fields of the biosciences, actinomycete natural products research has been revolutionised by next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS). Hundreds of new genome sequences from actinobacteria are made public every year, many of them as a result of projects aimed at identifying new natural products and their biosynthetic pathways through genome mining. Advances in these technologies in the last five years have meant not only a reduction in the cost of whole genome sequencing, but also a substantial increase in the quality of the data, having moved from obtaining a draft genome sequence comprised of several hundred short contigs, sometimes of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Nonribosomal peptide synthase gene clusters for lipopeptide biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis 916 and their phenotypic functions.

Bacillus cyclic lipopeptides (LPs) have been well studied for their phytopathogen-antagonistic activities. Recently, research has shown that these LPs also contribute to the phenotypic features of Bacillus strains, such as hemolytic activity, swarming motility, biofilm formation, and colony morphology. Bacillus subtilis 916 not only coproduces the three families of well-known LPs, i.e., surfactins, bacillomycin Ls (iturin family), and fengycins, but also produces a new family of LP called locillomycins. The genome of B. subtilis 916 contains four nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) gene clusters, srf, bmy, fen, and loc, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of surfactins, bacillomycin Ls, fengycins, and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Kitasatospora griseola strain MF730-N6, a bafilomycin, terpentecin, and satosporin producer.

We report here the draft genome sequence of Kitasatospora griseola strain MF730-N6, a known producer of bafilomycin, terpentecin, and satosporins. The current assembly comprises 8 contigs covering 7.97 Mb. Genome annotation revealed 7,225 protein coding sequences, 100 tRNAs, 40 rRNA genes, and 23 secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. Copyright © 2015 Arens et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-ß-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 ß-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Rhodococcus sp. B7740, a carotenoid-producing bacterium isolated from the Arctic Sea.

Rhodococcus sp. B7740 was isolated from Arctic seawater and selected for its capacity to synthesize carotenoids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Rhodococcus sp. B7740 to provide the genetic basis for a better understanding of its carotenoid-accumulating capabilities, and we describe the major features of the genome. Copyright © 2015 Zhang et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High-quality draft genome sequence of actinobacterium Kibdelosporangium sp. MJ126-NF4, producer of type II polyketide azicemicins, using Illumina and PacBio Technologies.

Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of actinobacterium Kibdelosporangium sp. MJ126-NF4, producer of the type II polyketide azicemicins, obtained using Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. The 11.75-Mbp genome contains >11,000 genes and 22 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters. Copyright © 2015 Ogasawara et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Streptacidiphilus oryzae TH49T, an acidophilic actinobacterium isolated from soil.

The draft genome sequence of Streptacidiphilus oryzae strain TH49(T), an acidophilic actinobacterium, was obtained. The draft is composed of six scaffolds totaling 7.8 Mbp, and it contains 6,829 protein-coding genes and 91 RNA genes. Genes related to respiratory nitrate reduction, siderophore production, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites were identified. Copyright © 2015 Kim et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii genome: de novo sequencing and assembly in single contigs of the chromosome, circular plasmid pSLE1 and linear plasmid pSLE2.

Next Generation DNA Sequencing (NGS) and genome mining of actinomycetes and other microorganisms is currently one of the most promising strategies for the discovery of novel bioactive natural products, potentially revealing novel chemistry and enzymology involved in their biosynthesis. This approach also allows rapid insights into the biosynthetic potential of microorganisms isolated from unexploited habitats and ecosystems, which in many cases may prove difficult to culture and manipulate in the laboratory. Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii (formerly Streptomyces sp. strain C34) was isolated from the hyper-arid high-altitude Atacama Desert in Chile and shown to produce novel polyketide antibiotics.Here we present the de novo…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Discovery of microbial natural products by activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters.

Microorganisms produce a wealth of structurally diverse specialized metabolites with a remarkable range of biological activities and a wide variety of applications in medicine and agriculture, such as the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer, and the prevention of crop damage. Genomics has revealed that many microorganisms have far greater potential to produce specialized metabolites than was thought from classic bioactivity screens; however, realizing this potential has been hampered by the fact that many specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are not expressed in laboratory cultures. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that have been developed in bacteria and…

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