July 7, 2019  |  

Antibiotic resistance markers in Burkholderia pseudomallei strain Bp1651 identified by genome sequence analysis.

Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp1651 is resistant to several classes of antibiotics that are usually effective for treatment of melioidosis, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and ß-lactams such as penicillins (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid), cephalosporins (ceftazidime), and carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the Bp1651 genome and analyzed the sequence using comparative genomic analyses with susceptible strains, keyword searches of the annotation, publicly available antimicrobial resistance prediction tools, and published reports. More than 100 genes in the Bp1651 sequence were identified as potentially contributing to antimicrobial resistance. Most notably, we identified three previously uncharacterized point mutations in penA, which codes for a class A ß-lactamase and was previously implicated in resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics. The mutations result in amino acid changes T147A, D240G, and V261I. When individually introduced into select agent-excluded B. pseudomallei strain Bp82, D240G was found to contribute to ceftazidime resistance and T147A contributed to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and imipenem resistance. This study provides the first evidence that mutations in penA may alter susceptibility to carbapenems in B. pseudomallei Another mutation of interest was a point mutation affecting the dihydrofolate reductase gene folA, which likely explains the trimethoprim resistance of this strain. Bp1651 was susceptible to aminoglycosides likely because of a frameshift in the amrB gene, the transporter subunit of the AmrAB-OprA efflux pump. These findings expand the role of penA to include resistance to carbapenems and may assist in the development of molecular diagnostics that predict antimicrobial resistance and provide guidance for treatment of melioidosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia stabilis FERMP-21014.

Cholesterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13) was identified in a bacterium, Burkholderia stabilis strain FERMP-21014. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. stabilis FERMP-21014, which has been used in the commercial production of cholesterol esterase. The genome sequence information may be useful for improving production levels of cholesterol esterase. Copyright © 2017 Konishi et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Reclassification of the specialized metabolite producer Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 as a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is a Gram-negative bacterium, first isolated from Japanese soil samples, that produces the monobactam isosulfazecin and the ß-lactam-potentiating bulgecins. To characterize the biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, its complete genome was determined using single-molecule real-time DNA sequence analysis. The 7.8-Mb genome comprised four replicons, three chromosomal (each encoding rRNA) and one plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 was misclassified at the time of its deposition and is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to Burkholderia ubonensis The sequenced genome shows considerable additional biosynthetic potential; known gene clusters for malleilactone, ornibactin, isosulfazecin, alkylhydroxyquinoline, and pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis and several uncharacterized biosynthetic gene clusters for polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and other metabolites were identified. Furthermore, P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 harbors many genes associated with environmental resilience and antibiotic resistance and was resistant to a range of antibiotics and metal ions. In summary, this bioactive strain should be designated B. cepacia complex strain ATCC 31433, pending further detailed taxonomic characterization.IMPORTANCE This work reports the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, a known producer of bioactive compounds. Large numbers of both known and novel biosynthetic gene clusters were identified, indicating that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is an untapped resource for discovery of novel bioactive compounds. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is in fact a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to the species Burkholderia ubonensis Further investigation of the classification and biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Loveridge et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Improved high-quality draft genome sequence and annotation of Burkholderia contaminans LMG 23361T.

Burkholderia contaminans LMG 23361 is the type strain of the species isolated from the milk of a dairy sheep with mastitis. Some pharmaceutical products contain disinfectants such as benzalkonium chloride (BZK) and previously we reported that B. contaminans LMG 23361(T) possesses the ability to inactivate BZK with high biodegradation rates. Here, we report an improved high-quality draft genome sequence of this strain. Copyright © 2017 Jung et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genomics of Burkholderia multivorans, a ubiquitous pathogen with a highly conserved genomic structure.

The natural environment serves as a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. A well-established method for studying the epidemiology of such opportunists is multilocus sequence typing, which in many cases has defined strains predisposed to causing infection. Burkholderia multivorans is an important pathogen in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and its epidemiology suggests that strains are acquired from non-human sources such as the natural environment. This raises the central question of whether the isolation source (CF or environment) or the multilocus sequence type (ST) of B. multivorans better predicts their genomic content and functionality. We identified four pairs of B. multivorans isolates, representing distinct STs and consisting of one CF and one environmental isolate each. All genomes were sequenced using the PacBio SMRT sequencing technology, which resulted in eight high-quality B. multivorans genome assemblies. The present study demonstrated that the genomic structure of the examined B. multivorans STs is highly conserved and that the B. multivorans genomic lineages are defined by their ST. Orthologous protein families were not uniformly distributed among chromosomes, with core orthologs being enriched on the primary chromosome and ST-specific orthologs being enriched on the second and third chromosome. The ST-specific orthologs were enriched in genes involved in defense mechanisms and secondary metabolism, corroborating the strain-specificity of these virulence characteristics. Finally, the same B. multivorans genomic lineages occur in both CF and environmental samples and on different continents, demonstrating their ubiquity and evolutionary persistence.


July 7, 2019  |  

Phylogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates, Western Hemisphere.

The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, which is mainly associated with tropical areas. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among genome sequences from isolates of B. pseudomallei that originated in the Western Hemisphere by comparing them with genome sequences of isolates that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere. Analysis indicated that isolates from the Western Hemisphere form a distinct clade, which supports the hypothesis that these isolates were derived from a constricted seeding event from Africa. Subclades have been resolved that are associated with specific regions within the Western Hemisphere and suggest that isolates might be correlated geographically with cases of melioidosis. One isolate associated with a former World War II prisoner of war was believed to represent illness 62 years after exposure in Southeast Asia. However, analysis suggested the isolate originated in Central or South America.


July 7, 2019  |  

Identification of sRNA mediated responses to nutrient depletion in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

The Burkholderia genus includes many species that are known to survive in diverse environmental conditions including low nutrient environments. One species, Burkholderia pseudomallei is a versatile pathogen that can survive in a wide range of hosts and environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated how a nutrient depleted growth environment evokes sRNA mediated responses by B. pseudomallei. Computationally predicted B. pseudomallei D286 sRNAs were mapped to RNA-sequencing data for cultures grown under two conditions: (1) BHIB as a nutrient rich media reference environment and (2) M9 media as a nutrient depleted stress environment. The sRNAs were further selected to identify potentially cis-encoded systems by investigating their possible interactions with their flanking genes. The mappings of predicted sRNA genes and interactions analysis to their flanking genes identified 12 sRNA candidates that may possibly have cis-acting regulatory roles that are associated to a nutrient depleted growth environment. Our approach can be used for identifying novel sRNA genes and their possible role as cis-mediated regulatory systems.


July 7, 2019  |  

The genome analysis of Candidatus Burkholderia crenata reveals that secondary metabolism may be a key function of the Ardisia crenata leaf nodule symbiosis.

A majority of Ardisia species harbour Burkholderia sp. bacteria within specialized leaf nodules. The bacteria are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured outside of their host. Because the plants cannot develop beyond the seedling stage without their symbionts, the symbiosis is considered obligatory. We sequenced for the first time the genome of Candidatus Burkholderia crenata (Ca. B. crenata), the leaf nodule symbiont of Ardisia crenata. The genome of Ca. B. crenata is the smallest Burkholderia genome to date. It contains a large amount of insertion sequences and pseudogenes and displays features consistent with reductive genome evolution. The genome does not encode functions commonly associated with plant symbioses such as nitrogen fixation and plant hormone metabolism. However, we identified unique genes with a predicted role in secondary metabolism in the genome of Ca. B. crenata. Specifically, we provide evidence that the bacterial symbionts are responsible for the synthesis of compound FR900359, a cyclic depsipeptide with biomedical properties previously isolated from leaves of A.?crenata. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Evidence of horizontal gene transfer between obligate leaf nodule symbionts.

Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia establish an obligate symbiosis with plant species of the Rubiaceae and Primulaceae families. The bacteria, housed within the leaves, are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured. We have sequenced and compared the genomes of eight bacterial leaf nodule symbionts of the Rubiaceae plant family. All of the genomes exhibit features consistent with genome erosion. Genes potentially involved in the biosynthesis of kirkamide, an insecticidal C7N aminocyclitol, are conserved in most Rubiaceae symbionts. However, some have partially lost the kirkamide pathway due to genome erosion and are unable to synthesize the compound. Kirkamide synthesis is therefore not responsible for the obligate nature of the symbiosis. More importantly, we find evidence of intra-clade horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events affecting genes of the secondary metabolism. This indicates that substantial gene flow can occur at the early stages following host restriction in leaf nodule symbioses. We propose that host-switching events and plasmid conjugative transfers could have promoted these HGTs. This genomic analysis of leaf nodule symbionts gives, for the first time, new insights in the genome evolution of obligate symbionts in their early stages of the association with plants.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain PAMC28687, a potential octopine-utilizing bacterium isolated from Antarctica lichen.

We report the complete genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. PAMC28687, which was isolated from the Antarctica lichen Useea sp., for better understanding of its catabolic traits in utilizing octopine as a source of carbon/nitrogen between Burkholderia and lichen. The genome consists of three circular chromosomes with five circular plasmids for the total 6,881,273bp sized genome with a G+C content of 58.14%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain CCA53, isolated from leaf soil.

Burkholderia sp. strain CCA53 was isolated from leaf soil collected in Higashi-Hiroshima City in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 4 contigs containing 6,647,893 bp, with a G+C content of 67.0% and comprising 9,329 predicted coding sequences. Copyright © 2016 Akita et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

The effects of signal erosion and core genome reduction on the identification of diagnostic markers.

Whole-genome sequence (WGS) data are commonly used to design diagnostic targets for the identification of bacterial pathogens. To do this effectively, genomics databases must be comprehensive to identify the strict core genome that is specific to the target pathogen. As additional genomes are analyzed, the core genome size is reduced and there is erosion of the target-specific regions due to commonality with related species, potentially resulting in the identification of false positives and/or false negatives.A comparative analysis of 1,130 Burkholderia genomes identified unique markers for many named species, including the human pathogens B. pseudomallei and B. mallei Due to core genome reduction and signature erosion, only 38 targets specific to B. pseudomallei/mallei were identified. By using only public genomes, a larger number of markers were identified, due to undersampling, and this larger number represents the potential for false positives. This analysis has implications for the design of diagnostics for other species where the genomic space of the target and/or closely related species is not well defined. Copyright © 2016 Sahl et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of 12 species of stable defined moderately diverse mouse microbiota 2.

We report here the complete genome sequences of 12 bacterial species of stable defined moderately diverse mouse microbiota 2 (sDMDMm2) used to colonize germ-free mice with defined microbes. Whole-genome sequencing of these species was performed using the PacBio sequencing platform yielding circularized genome sequences of all 12 species. Copyright © 2016 Uchimura et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Understanding the pathogenicity of Burkholderia contaminans, an emerging pathogen in cystic fibrosis.

Several bacterial species from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are feared opportunistic pathogens that lead to debilitating lung infections with a high risk of developing fatal septicemia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, the pathogenic potential of other Bcc species is yet unknown. To elucidate clinical relevance of Burkholderia contaminans, a species frequently isolated from CF respiratory samples in Ibero-American countries, we aimed to identify its key virulence factors possibly linked with an unfavorable clinical outcome. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of two isolates of B. contaminans ST872 from sputum and blood culture of a female CF patient in Argentina. RNA-seq data showed significant changes in expression for quorum sensing-regulated virulence factors and motility and chemotaxis. Furthermore, we detected expression changes in a recently described low-oxygen-activated (lxa) locus which encodes stress-related proteins, and for two clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of antifungal and hemolytic compounds pyrrolnitrin and occidiofungin. Based on phenotypic assays that confirmed changes in motility and in proteolytic, hemolytic and antifungal activities, we were able to distinguish two phenotypes of B. contaminans that coexisted in the host and entered her bloodstream. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the sputum and bloodstream isolates (each representing a distinct phenotype) differed by over 1,400 mutations as a result of a mismatch repair-deficient hypermutable state of the sputum isolate. The inferred lack of purifying selection against nonsynonymous mutations and the high rate of pseudogenization in the derived isolate indicated limited evolutionary pressure during evolution in the nutrient-rich, stable CF sputum environment. The present study is the first to examine the genomic and transcriptomic differences between longitudinal isolates of B. contaminans. Detected activity of a number of putative virulence factors implies a genuine pathogenic nature of this novel Bcc species.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.