September 22, 2019  |  

Effects of metal and metalloid pollutants on the microbiota composition of feces obtained from twelve commercial pig farms across China.

Understanding the metal and metalloid contamination and microbiota composition of pig feces is an important step required to support the design and implementation of effective pollution control and prevention strategies. A survey was implemented in 12 locations across China to investigate the content of metals and metalloids, and the main composition of the microbial communities of commercially reared pigs during two growth periods, defined as the early (Q group) and the later fattening growth phases (H group). These data showed widespread Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe pollution in pig feces. The concentration of Zn in the Q group feces was nearly two times higher than the levels measured in the H group. The microbial composition of the Q group exhibited greater richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and fewer bacteria associated with zoonotic diseases compared with the microbial composition of the H group. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that Cu and northern latitudes had a significant positive effect on the richness of bacterial communities in pig feces. Zn and Cd exhibited the biggest impact on microbial community composition based on canonical correspondence analysis. Functional metagenomic prediction indicated that about 0.8% genes present in the pig feces bacteria community are related to human diseases, and significantly more predicted pathogenic genes were detected in the H group than in the Q group. These results support the need to monitor heavy metal contamination and to control for zoonotic pathogens disseminated from pig feces in Chinese pig farms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.


September 22, 2019  |  

Transcriptome profiling using Illumina- and SMRT-based RNA-seq of hot pepper for in-depth understanding of genes involved in CMV infection.

Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is becoming an increasingly important vegetable crop in the world. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive virus that can cause leaf distortion and fruit lesions, affecting pepper production. However, studies on the response to CMV infection in pepper at the transcriptional level are limited. In this study, the transcript profiles of pepper leaves after CMV infection were investigated using Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 2143 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at five different stages. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEGs were involved in the response to stress, defense response and plant-pathogen interaction pathways. Among these DEGs, several key genes that consistently appeared in studies of plant-pathogen interactions had increased transcript abundance after inoculation, including chitinase, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein, TMV resistance protein, WRKY transcription factor and jasmonate ZIM-domain protein. Four of these DEGs were further validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, a total of 73, 597 alternative splicing (AS) events were identified in the pepper leaves after CMV infection, distributed in 12, 615 genes. The intron retention of WRKY33 (Capana09g001251) might be involved in the regulation of CMV infection. Taken together, our study provides a transcriptome-wide insight into the molecular basis of resistance to CMV infection in pepper leaves and potential candidate genes for improving resistance cultivars. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae R11 reveals multiple genes potentially associated with high-level polymyxin E resistance.

Enterobacter cloacae strain R11 is a multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from sewage water near a swine feedlot in China. Strain R11 can survive in medium containing up to 192 µg/mL polymyxin E, indicating a tolerance for this antibiotic that is significantly higher than that reported for other gram-negative bacteria. In this study, conjugation experiments showed that partial polymyxin E resistance could be transferred from strain R11 to Escherichia coli strain 25922, revealing that some genes related to polymyxin E resistance are plasmid-based. The complete genome sequence of this strain was determined, yielding a total of 4?993?008 bp (G+C content, 53.15%) and 4908 genes for the circular chromosome and 4 circular plasmids. Genome analysis revealed a total of 73 putative antibiotic resistance genes, including several polymyxin E resistance genes and genes potentially involved in multidrug resistance. These data provide insights into the genetic basis of the polymyxin E resistance and multidrug resistance of E. cloacae.


September 22, 2019  |  

Extensively drug-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 1642 carrying an IncX3 plasmid containing the blaKPC-2 gene associated with transposon Tn4401a.

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Enterobacteriaceae carrying the bla(KPC) gene have emerged as a major global therapeutic concern. The purpose of this study was to analyze the complete sequences of plasmids from KPC-2 carbapenemase-producing XDR Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 1642 isolates.We performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and whole-genome sequencing to characterize the plasmid-mediated KPC-2-producing E. coli clinical isolates.The isolates were resistant to most available antibiotics, including meropenem, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, but susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. The isolates were identified as the rare ST1642 by MLST. The isolates carried four plasmids: the first 69-kb conjugative IncX3 plasmid harbors bla(KPC-2) within a truncated Tn4401a transposon and bla(SHV-11) with duplicated conjugative elements. The second 142-kb plasmid with a multireplicon consisting of IncQ, IncFIA, and IncIB carries bla(TEM-1b) and two class 1 integrons. This plasmid also harbors a wide variety of additional antimicrobial resistance genes including aadA5, dfrA17, mph(A), sul1, tet(B), aac(3′)-IId, strA, strB, and sul2.The complete sequence analysis of plasmids from an XDR E. coli strain related to persistent infection showed the coexistence of a bla(KPC-2)-carrying IncX3-type plasmid and a class 1 integron-harboring multireplicon, suggesting its potential to cause outbreaks. Of additional clinical significance, the rare ST1642, identified in a cat, could constitute the source of human infection.


September 22, 2019  |  

Characterization of ß-glucan formation by Lactobacillus brevis TMW 1.2112 isolated from slimy spoiled beer.

Despite several hurdles, which hinder bacterial growth in beer, certain bacteria are still able to spoil beer. One type of spoilage is characterized by an increased viscosity and slimy texture caused by exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we characterize for the first time EPS production in a beer-spoiling strain (TMW 1.2112) of Lactobacillus brevis, a species commonly involved in beer spoilage. The strain’s growth dynamics were assessed and we found an increased viscosity or ropiness in liquid or on solid media, respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and released EPS from the cells or supernatant, respectively, were analyzed via NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Both are identical ß-(1?3)-glucans, which are ramified with ß-glucose residues at position O2. Therefore, we assume that this EPS is mainly produced as CPS and partially released into the surrounding medium, causing viscosity of e.g. beer. CPS formation was confirmed via an agglutination test. A plasmid-located glycosyltransferase-2 was found as responsible for excess ß-glucan formation, chromosomal glucanases were proposed for its degradation. The glycosyltransferase-2 gene could also be specifically identified in beer-spoiling, slime-producing Lactobacillus rossiae and Lactobacillus parabuchneri strains, suggesting it as promising marker gene for the early detection of ß-glucan-producing Lactobacilli in breweries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

Plasmid-encoded transferable mecB-mediated methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

During cefoxitin-based nasal screening, phenotypically categorized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated and tested negative for the presence of the mecA and mecC genes as well as for the SCCmec-orfX junction region. The isolate was found to carry a mecB gene previously described for Macrococcus caseolyticus but not for staphylococcal species. The gene is flanked by ß-lactam regulatory genes similar to mecR, mecI, and blaZ and is part of an 84.6-kb multidrug-resistance plasmid that harbors genes encoding additional resistances to aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD, aphA, and aadK) as well as macrolides (ermB) and tetracyclines (tetS). This further plasmidborne ß-lactam resistance mechanism harbors the putative risk of acceleration or reacceleration of MRSA spread, resulting in broad ineffectiveness of ß-lactams as a main therapeutic application against staphylococcal infections.


September 22, 2019  |  

Molecular epidemiology and mechanism of sulbactam resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates with diverse genetic background in China

Sulbactam is a plausible option for treating Acinetobacter infections because of its intrinsic antibacterial activity against the members of the Acinetobacter genus, but the mechanisms of sulbactam resistance have not been fully studied in Acinetobacter baumannii In this study, a total of 2,197 clinical A. baumannii isolates were collected from 27 provinces in China. Eighty-eight isolates with various MICs for sulbactam were selected on the basis of their diverse clonality and underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and resistance gene screening. The copy number and relative expression of blaTEM-1D and ampC were measured via quantitative PCR and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. The genetic structure of multicopy blaTEM-1D was determined using the whole-genome sequencing technology. The cefoperazone-sulbactam resistance rate of the 2,197 isolates was 39.7%. The rate of positivity for blaTEM-1D or ISAba1-ampC in the sulbactam-nonsusceptible group (64.91% and 78.95%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the sulbactam-susceptible group (0% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001). The MIC of sulbactam (P < 0.001) varied considerably between the groups expressing ampC with or without upstream ISAba1 Notably, the genetic structure of the multicopy blaTEM-1D gene in strain ZS3 revealed that blaTEM-1D was embedded within four tandem copies of the cassette IS26-blaTEM-1D-Tn3-IS26 Therefore, blaTEM-1D and ISAba1-ampC represent the prevalent mechanism underlying sulbactam resistance in clinical A. baumannii isolates in China. The structure of the four tandem copies of blaTEM-1D first identified may increase sulbactam resistance. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.


September 22, 2019  |  

Multidrug-resistant Escherichia albertii: Co-occurrence of ß-lactamase and MCR-1 encoding genes.

Escherichia albertii is an emerging member of the Enterobacteriaceae causing human and animal enteric infections. Antimicrobial resistance among enteropathogens has been reported to be increasing in the past years. The purpose of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in E. albertii isolated from Zigong city, Sichuan province, China. The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The highest prevalence was tetracycline resistance with a rate of 62.7%, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and streptomycin with a rate of 56.9 and 51.0%, respectively. All isolates were sensitive or intermediate susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and levofloxacin. Among 51 E. albertii isolates, 15 were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing as confirmed by the double disk test. The main ß-lactamase gene groups, i.e., blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M, were detected in17, 20, and 22 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, four colistin-resistant isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8 mg/L were identified. The colistin-resistant isolates all harbored mcr-1 and blaCTX-M-55. Genome sequencing showed that E. albertii strain SP140150 carried mcr-1 and blaCTX-M-55 in two different plasmids. This study provided significant information regarding antibiotic resistance profiles and identified the co-occurrence of ß-lactamase and MCR-1 encoding genes in E. albertii isolates.


September 22, 2019  |  

The global distribution and spread of the mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1.

Colistin represents one of the few available drugs for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the recent plasmid-mediated spread of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 poses a significant public health threat, requiring global monitoring and surveillance. Here, we characterize the global distribution of mcr-1 using a data set of 457 mcr-1-positive sequenced isolates. We find mcr-1 in various plasmid types but identify an immediate background common to all mcr-1 sequences. Our analyses establish that all mcr-1 elements in circulation descend from the same initial mobilization of mcr-1 by an ISApl1 transposon in the mid 2000s (2002-2008; 95% highest posterior density), followed by a marked demographic expansion, which led to its current global distribution. Our results provide the first systematic phylogenetic analysis of the origin and spread of mcr-1, and emphasize the importance of understanding the movement of antibiotic resistance genes across multiple levels of genomic organization.


September 22, 2019  |  

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in South Korea between 2010 and 2015.

This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiological time-course of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase- (NDM-) mediated carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in South Korea. A total of 146 non-duplicate NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae recovered between 2010 and 2015 were voluntarily collected from 33 general hospitals and confirmed by PCR. The species were identified by sequences of the 16S rDNA. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined either by the disk diffusion method or by broth microdilution, and the carbapenem MICs were determined by agar dilution. Then, multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing was carried out. Co-carried genes for drug resistance were identified by PCR and sequencing. The entire genomes of eight random selected NDM producers were sequenced. A total of 69 Klebsiella pneumoniae of 12 sequence types (STs), 34 Escherichia coli of 15 STs, 28 Enterobacter spp. (including one Enterobacter aerogenes), nine Citrobacter freundii, four Raoultella spp., and two Klebsiella oxytoca isolates produced either NDM-1 (n = 126), NDM-5 (n = 18), or NDM-7 (n = 2). The isolates co-produced CTX-M-type ESBL (52.1%), AmpCs (27.4%), additional carbapenemases (7.1%), and/or 16S rRNA methyltransferases (4.8%), resulting in multidrug-resistance (47.9%) or extensively drug-resistance (52.1%). Among plasmids harboring blaNDM, IncX3 was predominant (77.4%), followed by the IncFII type (5.8%). Genome analysis revealed inter-species and inter-strain horizontal gene transfer of the plasmid. Both clonal dissemination and plasmid transfer contributed to the wide dissemination of NDM producers in South Korea.


September 22, 2019  |  

Genetic basis of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 gene.

Compared with plasmid-borne mcr-1, the occurrence of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 is rare although it has been reported in several cases. This study aimed to investigate the genetic features of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 among Escherichia coli strains as well as the potential genetic basis governing mobilisation of mcr-1 in bacterial chromosomes. The genome sequences of 16 E. coli strains containing a chromosomal mcr-1 gene were obtained and analysed. Phylogenetic and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis demonstrated that mcr-1 was associated with four major types of genetic arrangements, namely ISApl1-mcr1-orf, Tn6330, complex Tn6330 and ?Tn6330 in chromosomes of genetically unrelated E. coli strains. The mcr-1-carrying mobile elements were shown to insert into the AT-rich region, which was also the case for ISApl1. Analysis of complete E. coli genome sequences showed that there were multiple copies of ISApl1 present in E. coli chromosomes that also carried mcr-1, whilst all mcr-1-negative chromosomes were absent of any copy of ISApl1, suggesting the strong association of ISApl1 and mcr-1. Insertion of ISApl1 into E. coli chromosomes may be a prerequisite for the insertion of mcr-1-carrying mobile elements. Insertion of mcr-1 into E. coli chromosomes would enable it to become intrinsically resistant, which is expected to become more prevalent. Policy on the prudent use of colistin both in veterinary and clinical settings should be imposed globally to further prevent dissemination of mcr-1 in E. coli and other bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

Genomic analysis of a pan-resistant isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, United States 2016.

Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to public health globally and leads to an estimated 23,000 deaths annually in the United States alone. Here, we report the genomic characterization of an unusualKlebsiella pneumoniae, nonsusceptible to all 26 antibiotics tested, that was isolated from a U.S.The isolate harbored four known beta-lactamase genes, including plasmid-mediatedblaNDM-1andblaCMY-6, as well as chromosomalblaCTX-M-15andblaSHV-28, which accounted for resistance to all beta-lactams tested. In addition, sequence analysis identified mechanisms that could explain all other reported nonsusceptibility results, including nonsusceptibility to colistin, tigecycline, and chloramphenicol. Two plasmids, IncA/C2 and IncFIB, were closely related to mobile elements described previously and isolated from Gram-negative bacteria from China, Nepal, India, the United States, and Kenya, suggesting possible origins of the isolate and plasmids. This is one of the firstK. pneumoniaeisolates in the United States to have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as nonsusceptible to all drugs tested, including all beta-lactams, colistin, and tigecycline. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health threat worldwide. Bacteria that are nonsusceptible or resistant to all antimicrobials available are of major concern to patients and the public because of lack of treatment options and potential for spread. AKlebsiella pneumoniaestrain that was nonsusceptible to all tested antibiotics was isolated from a U.S.Mechanisms that could explain all observed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, including resistance to colistin and beta-lactams, were identified through whole-genome sequencing. The large variety of resistance determinants identified demonstrates the usefulness of whole-genome sequencing for detecting these genes in an outbreak response. Sequencing of isolates with rare and unusual phenotypes can provide information on how these extremely resistant isolates develop, including whether resistance is acquired on mobile elements or accumulated through chromosomal mutations. Moreover, this provides further insight into not only detecting these highly resistant organisms but also preventing their spread.


September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genomic analysis of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium isolate cultured from ready-to-eat pork in China carrying one large plasmid containing mcr-1.

One mcr-1-carrying ST34-type Salmonella Typhimurium WW012 was cultured from 3,200 ready-to-eat (RTE) pork samples in 2014 in China. Broth dilution method was applied to obtain the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium WW012. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect transferability of this phenotype and whole-genome sequencing was performed to analyze its genomic characteristic. Thirty out of 3,200 RTE samples were positive for Salmonella and the three most frequent serotypes were identified as S. Derby (n = 8), S. Typhimurium (n = 6), and S. Enteritidis (n = 6). One S. Typhimurium isolate (S. Typhimurium WW012) cultured from RTE prepared pork was found to contain the mcr-1 gene. S. Typhimurium WW012 expressed a level of high resistance to seven different antimicrobial compounds in addition to colistin (MIC = 8 mg/L). A single plasmid, pWW012 (151,609-bp) was identified and found to be of an IncHI2/HI2A type that encoded a mcr-1 gene along with six additional antimicrobial resistance genes. Plasmid pWW012 contained an IS30-mcr-1-orf-orf-IS30 composite transposon that can be successfully transferred to Escherichia coli J53. When assessed further, the latter demonstrated considerable similarity to three plasmids pHYEC7-mcr-1, pSCC4, and pHNSHP45-2, respectively. Furthermore, plasmid pWW012 also contained a multidrug resistance (MDR) genetic structure IS26-aadA2-cmlA2-aadA1-IS406-sul3-IS26-dfrA12-aadA2-IS26, which showed high similarity to two plasmids, pHNLDF400 and pHNSHP45-2, respectively. Moreover, genes mapping to the chromosome (4,991,167-bp) were found to carry 28 mutations, related to two component regulatory systems (pmrAB, phoPQ) leading to modifications of lipid A component of the lipopolysaccharide structure. Additionally, one mutation (D87N) in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) gene of gyrA was identified in this mcr-1 harboring S. Typhimurium. In addition, various virulence factors and heavy metal resistance-encoding genes were also identified on the genome of S. Typhimurium WW012. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of mcr-1-carrying MDR S. Typhimurium strain from RTE pork in China.


September 22, 2019  |  

Spread of plasmid-encoded NDM-1 and GES-5 carbapenemases among extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant clinical Enterobacteriaceae in Durban, South Africa.

Whole-genome sequence analyses revealed the presence of blaNDM-1 (n = 31), blaGES-5 (n = 8), blaOXA-232 (n = 1), or blaNDM-5 (n = 1) in extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae organisms isolated from in-patients in 10 private hospitals (2012 to 2013) in Durban, South Africa. Two novel NDM-1-encoding plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae were circularized by PacBio sequencing. In p19-10_01 [IncFIB(K); 223.434 bp], blaNDM-1 was part of a Tn1548-like structure (16.276 bp) delineated by IS26 The multireplicon plasmid p18-43_01 [IncR_1/IncFIB(pB171)/IncFII(Yp); 212.326 bp] shared an 80-kb region with p19-10_01, not including the blaNDM-1-containing region. The two plasmids were used as references for tracing NDM-1-encoding plasmids in the other genome assemblies. The p19-10_01 sequence was detected in K. pneumoniae (n = 7) only, whereas p18-43_01 was tracked to K. pneumoniae (n = 4), Klebsiella michiganensis (n = 1), Serratia marcescens (n = 11), Enterobacter spp. (n = 7), and Citrobacter freundii (n = 1), revealing horizontal spread of this blaNDM-1-bearing plasmid structure. Global phylogeny showed clustering of the K. pneumoniae (18/20) isolates together with closely related carbapenemase-negative ST101 isolates from other geographical origins. The South African isolates were divided into three phylogenetic subbranches, where each group had distinct resistance and replicon profiles, carrying either p19-10_01, p18-10_01, or pCHE-A1 (8,201 bp). The latter plasmid carried blaGES-5 and aacA4 within an integron mobilization unit. Our findings imply independent plasmid acquisition followed by local dissemination. Additionally, we detected blaOXA-232 carried by pPKPN4 in K. pneumoniae (ST14) and blaNDM-5 contained by a pNDM-MGR194-like genetic structure in Escherichia coli (ST167), adding even more complexity to the multilayer molecular mechanisms behind nosocomial spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Durban, South Africa. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.


September 22, 2019  |  

An improved medium for colistin susceptibility testing.

The plasmid-located colistin resistance gene mcr-1 confers low-level resistance to colistin, a last-line antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Current CLSI-EUCAST recommendations require the use of a broth microdilution (BMD) method with cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton (CA-MH) medium for colistin susceptibility testing, but approximately 15% of all MCR-1 producers are classified as sensitive in that broth. Here we report on an improved calcium-enhanced Mueller-Hinton (CE-MH) medium that permits simple and reliable determination of mcr-1-containing Enterobacteriaceae Colistin susceptibility testing was performed for 50 mcr-1-containing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 7 intrinsically polymyxin-resistant species, K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates with acquired resistance to polymyxins due to mgrB and pmrB mutations, respectively, and 32 mcr-1-negative, colistin-susceptible isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. A comparison of the colistin MICs determined in CA-MH medium and those obtained in CE-MH medium was performed using both the BMD and strip-based susceptibility test formats. We validated the data using an isogenic IncX4 plasmid lacking mcr-1 Use of the CE-MH broth provides clear separation between resistant and susceptible isolates in both BMD and gradient diffusion assays; this is true for both mcr-1-containing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and those exhibiting either intrinsic or acquired colistin resistance. CE-MH medium is simple to prepare and overcomes current problems associated with BMD and strip-based colistin susceptibility testing, and use of the medium is easy to implement in routine diagnostic laboratories, even in resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.


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