One mcr-1-carrying ST34-type Salmonella Typhimurium WW012 was cultured from 3,200 ready-to-eat (RTE) pork samples in 2014 in China. Broth dilution method was applied to obtain the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium WW012. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect transferability of this phenotype and whole-genome sequencing was performed to analyze its genomic characteristic. Thirty out of 3,200 RTE samples were positive for Salmonella and the three most frequent serotypes were identified as S. Derby (n = 8), S. Typhimurium (n = 6), and S. Enteritidis (n = 6). One S. Typhimurium isolate (S. Typhimurium WW012) cultured from RTE prepared pork was found to contain the mcr-1 gene. S. Typhimurium WW012 expressed a level of high resistance to seven different antimicrobial compounds in addition to colistin (MIC = 8 mg/L). A single plasmid, pWW012 (151,609-bp) was identified and found to be of an IncHI2/HI2A type that encoded a mcr-1 gene along with six additional antimicrobial resistance genes. Plasmid pWW012 contained an IS30-mcr-1-orf-orf-IS30 composite transposon that can be successfully transferred to Escherichia coli J53. When assessed further, the latter demonstrated considerable similarity to three plasmids pHYEC7-mcr-1, pSCC4, and pHNSHP45-2, respectively. Furthermore, plasmid pWW012 also contained a multidrug resistance (MDR) genetic structure IS26-aadA2-cmlA2-aadA1-IS406-sul3-IS26-dfrA12-aadA2-IS26, which showed high similarity to two plasmids, pHNLDF400 and pHNSHP45-2, respectively. Moreover, genes mapping to the chromosome (4,991,167-bp) were found to carry 28 mutations, related to two component regulatory systems (pmrAB, phoPQ) leading to modifications of lipid A component of the lipopolysaccharide structure. Additionally, one mutation (D87N) in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) gene of gyrA was identified in this mcr-1 harboring S. Typhimurium. In addition, various virulence factors and heavy metal resistance-encoding genes were also identified on the genome of S. Typhimurium WW012. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of mcr-1-carrying MDR S. Typhimurium strain from RTE pork in China.
Journal: Frontiers in microbiology