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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The draft genome of whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, a global crop pest, provides novel insights into virus transmission, host adaptation, and insecticide resistance.

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is among the 100 worst invasive species in the world. As one of the most important crop pests and virus vectors, B. tabaci causes substantial crop losses and poses a serious threat to global food security. We report the 615-Mb high-quality genome sequence of B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), the first genome sequence in the Aleyrodidae family, which contains 15,664 protein-coding genes. The B. tabaci genome is highly divergent from other sequenced hemipteran genomes, sharing no detectable synteny. A number of known detoxification gene families, including cytochrome P450s and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, are significantly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

TeloPCR-seq: a high-throughput sequencing approach for telomeres.

We have developed a high-throughput sequencing approach that enables us to determine terminal telomere sequences from tens of thousands of individual Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomeres. This method provides unprecedented coverage of telomeric sequence complexity in fission yeast. S. pombe telomeres are composed of modular degenerate repeats that can be explained by variation in usage of the TER1 RNA template during reverse transcription. Taking advantage of this deep sequencing approach, we find that ‘like’ repeat modules are highly correlated within individual telomeres. Moreover, repeat module preference varies with telomere length, suggesting that existing repeats promote the incorporation of like repeats and/or that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomics-inspired discovery of three antibacterial active metabolites, aurantinins B, C, and D from compost-associated Bacillus subtilis fmb60.

Fmb60 is a wild-type Bacillus subtilis isolated from compost with significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Two novel PKS clusters were recognized in the genome sequence of fmb60, and then three polyene antibiotics, aurantinins B, C, and D, 1-3, were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation from the fermentation of fmb60. The structures of aurantinins B-D were elucidated by LC-HRMS and NMR data analysis. Aurantinins C and D were identified as new antimicrobial compounds. The three aurantinins showed significant activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sporogenes. However, aurantinins B-D did not exhibit any cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 µg/mL) against LO2 and Caco2 cell…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Spontaneous chloroplast mutants mostly occur by replication slippage and show a biased pattern in the plastome of Oenothera.

Spontaneous plastome mutants have been used as a research tool since the beginning of genetics. However, technical restrictions have severely limited their contributions to research in physiology and molecular biology. Here, we used full plastome sequencing to systematically characterize a collection of 51 spontaneous chloroplast mutants in Oenothera (evening primrose). Most mutants carry only a single mutation. Unexpectedly, the vast majority of mutations do not represent single nucleotide polymorphisms but are insertions/deletions originating from DNA replication slippage events. Only very few mutations appear to be caused by imprecise double-strand break repair, nucleotide misincorporation during replication, or incorrect nucleotide excision repair…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Exploiting next-generation sequencing to solve the haplotyping puzzle in polyploids: a simulation study.

Haplotypes are the units of inheritance in an organism, and many genetic analyses depend on their precise determination. Methods for haplotyping single individuals use the phasing information available in next-generation sequencing reads, by matching overlapping single-nucleotide polymorphisms while penalizing post hoc nucleotide corrections made. Haplotyping diploids is relatively easy, but the complexity of the problem increases drastically for polyploid genomes, which are found in both model organisms and in economically relevant plant and animal species. Although a number of tools are available for haplotyping polyploids, the effects of the genomic makeup and the sequencing strategy followed on the accuracy of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genomic and transcriptional landscape analysis using third-generation sequencing: a case study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D.

Completion of eukaryal genomes can be difficult task with the highly repetitive sequences along the chromosomes and short read lengths of second-generation sequencing. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK113-7D, widely used as a model organism and a cell factory, was selected for this study to demonstrate the superior capability of very long sequence reads for de novo genome assembly. We generated long reads using two common third-generation sequencing technologies (Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio)) and used short reads obtained using Illumina sequencing for error correction. Assembly of the reads derived from all three technologies resulted in complete sequences for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recent progress and prospects for advancing arachnid genomics

Arachnids exhibit tremendous species richness and adaptations of biomedical, industrial, and agricultural importance. Yet genomic resources for arachnids are limited, with the first few spider and scorpion genomes becoming accessible in the last four years. We review key insights from these genome projects, and recommend additional genomes for sequencing, emphasizing taxa of greatest value to the scientific community. We suggest greater sampling of spiders whose genomes are understudied but hold important protein recipes for silk and venom production. We further recommend arachnid genomes to address significant evolutionary topics, including the phenotypic impact of genome duplications. A barrier to high-quality arachnid…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli 81009, a representative of the sequence type 131 C1-M27 clade with a multidrug-resistant phenotype.

The sequence type 131 (ST131)-H30 clone is responsible for a significant proportion of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections. Recently, the C1-M27 clade of ST131-H30, associated with blaCTX-M-27, has emerged. The complete genome sequence of E. coli isolate 81009 belonging to this clone, previously used during the development of ST131-specific monoclonal antibodies, is reported here. Copyright © 2018 Mutti et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Ten steps to get started in Genome Assembly and Annotation.

As a part of the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE efforts in capacity building, we present here 10 steps to facilitate researchers getting started in genome assembly and genome annotation. The guidelines given are broadly applicable, intended to be stable over time, and cover all aspects from start to finish of a general assembly and annotation project. Intrinsic properties of genomes are discussed, as is the importance of using high quality DNA. Different sequencing technologies and generally applicable workflows for genome assembly are also detailed. We cover structural and functional annotation and encourage readers to also annotate transposable elements, something that is often omitted…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Reevaluation of the complete genome sequence of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 with Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing data.

Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a key organism for understanding magnetosome formation and magnetotaxis. As earlier studies suggested a high genomic plasticity, we (re)sequenced the type strain MSR-1 and the laboratory strain R3/S1. Both sequences differ by only 11 point mutations, but organization of the magnetosome island deviates from that of previous genome sequences. Copyright © 2018 Uebe et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The sequenced angiosperm genomes and genome databases.

Angiosperms, the flowering plants, provide the essential resources for human life, such as food, energy, oxygen, and materials. They also promoted the evolution of human, animals, and the planet earth. Despite the numerous advances in genome reports or sequencing technologies, no review covers all the released angiosperm genomes and the genome databases for data sharing. Based on the rapid advances and innovations in the database reconstruction in the last few years, here we provide a comprehensive review for three major types of angiosperm genome databases, including databases for a single species, for a specific angiosperm clade, and for multiple angiosperm…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The challenge of analyzing the sugarcane genome.

Reference genome sequences have become key platforms for genetics and breeding of the major crop species. Sugarcane is probably the largest crop produced in the world (in weight of crop harvested) but lacks a reference genome sequence. Sugarcane has one of the most complex genomes in crop plants due to the extreme level of polyploidy. The genome of modern sugarcane hybrids includes sub-genomes from two progenitors Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum with some chromosomes resulting from recombination between these sub-genomes. Advancing DNA sequencing technologies and strategies for genome assembly are making the sugarcane genome more tractable. Advances in long read…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Improved draft genome sequence of a monoteliosporic culture of the karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) pathogen of wheat.

Karnal bunt of wheat is an internationally quarantined fungal pathogen disease caused by Tilletia indica and affects the international commercial seed trade of wheat. We announce here the first improved draft genome assembly of a monoteliosporic culture of the Tilletia indica fungus, consisting of 787 scaffolds with an approximate total genome size of 31.83 Mbp, which is more accurate and near to complete than the previous version. Copyright © 2018 Kumar et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of different putative outer membrane electron conduits necessary for Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) oxide, Mn(IV) oxide, or electrode reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens.

At least five gene clusters in the Geobacter sulfurreducens genome encode putative “electron conduits” implicated in electron transfer across the outer membrane, each containing a periplasmic multiheme c-type cytochrome, integral outer membrane anchor, and outer membrane redox lipoprotein(s). Markerless single-gene-cluster deletions and all possible multiple-deletion combinations were constructed and grown with soluble Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, and graphite electrodes poised at +0.24 V and -0.1 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). Different gene clusters were necessary for reduction of each electron acceptor. During metal oxide reduction, deletion of the previously described omcBC cluster caused defects, but deletion…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Moving forward: recent developments for the ferret biomedical research model.

Since the initial report in 1911, the domestic ferret has become an invaluable biomedical research model. While widely recognized for its utility in influenza virus research, ferrets are used for a variety of infectious and noninfectious disease models due to the anatomical, metabolic, and physiological features they share with humans and their susceptibility to many human pathogens. However, there are limitations to the model that must be overcome for maximal utility for the scientific community. Here, we describe important recent advances that will accelerate biomedical research with this animal model. Copyright © 2018 Albrecht et al.

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