Fmb60 is a wild-type Bacillus subtilis isolated from compost with significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Two novel PKS clusters were recognized in the genome sequence of fmb60, and then three polyene antibiotics, aurantinins B, C, and D, 1-3, were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation from the fermentation of fmb60. The structures of aurantinins B-D were elucidated by LC-HRMS and NMR data analysis. Aurantinins C and D were identified as new antimicrobial compounds. The three aurantinins showed significant activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sporogenes. However, aurantinins B-D did not exhibit any cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 µg/mL) against LO2 and Caco2 cell lines by MTT assay. Furthermore, using S. aureus as a model bacterium to explore the antibacterial mechanism of aurantinins B-D, it was revealed that the bactericidal activity of aurantinins B-D was related to their ability to disrupt the cell membrane.
Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry