April 21, 2020  |  

Comparative genome analysis provides novel insight into the interaction of Aquimarina sp. AD1, BL5 and AD10 with their macroalgal host.

The Aquimarina genus is widely distributed throughout the marine environment, however little is understood regarding its ecological role, particularly when in association with eukaryotic hosts. Here, we examine the genomes of two opportunistic pathogens, Aquimarina sp. AD1 and BL5, and a non-pathogenic strain Aquimarina sp. AD10, that were isolated from diseased individuals of the red alga Delisea pulchra. Each strain encodes multiple genes for the degradation of marine carbohydrates and vitamin biosynthesis. These traits are hypothesised to promote nutrient exchange between the Aquimarina strains and their algal host, facilitating a close symbiotic relationship. Moreover, each strain harbours the necessary genes for the assembly of a Type 9 Secretion System (T9SS) and the associated gliding motility apparatus. In addition to these common features, pathogenic strains AD1 and BL5, encode genes for the production of flexirubin type pigments and a number of unique non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS) gene clusters, suggesting a role for these uncharacterised traits in virulence. This study provides valuable insight into the potential ecological role of Aquimarina in the marine environment and the complex factors driving pathogenesis and symbiosis in this genus.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and analysis of its companion mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium.

Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.


July 7, 2019  |  

Simultaneous emergence of multidrug-resistant Candida auris on 3 continents confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological analyses.

Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes invasive infections, was first described in 2009 in Japan and has since been reported from several countries.To understand the global emergence and epidemiology of C. auris, we obtained isolates from 54 patients with C. auris infection from Pakistan, India, South Africa, and Venezuela during 2012-2015 and the type specimen from Japan. Patient information was available for 41 of the isolates. We conducted antifungal susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).Available clinical information revealed that 41% of patients had diabetes mellitus, 51% had undergone recent surgery, 73% had a central venous catheter, and 41% were receiving systemic antifungal therapy when C. auris was isolated. The median time from admission to infection was 19 days (interquartile range, 9-36 days), 61% of patients had bloodstream infection, and 59% died. Using stringent break points, 93% of isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 35% to amphotericin B, and 7% to echinocandins; 41% were resistant to 2 antifungal classes and 4% were resistant to 3 classes. WGS demonstrated that isolates were grouped into unique clades by geographic region. Clades were separated by thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, but within each clade isolates were clonal. Different mutations in ERG11 were associated with azole resistance in each geographic clade.C. auris is an emerging healthcare-associated pathogen associated with high mortality. Treatment options are limited, due to antifungal resistance. WGS analysis suggests nearly simultaneous, and recent, independent emergence of different clonal populations on 3 continents. Risk factors and transmission mechanisms need to be elucidated to guide control measures. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genome analysis of the Flavobacteriales bacterium strain UJ101, isolated from the gut of Atergatis reticulatus.

Here we report the comparative genomic analysis of strain UJ101 with 15 strains from the family Flavobacteriaceae, using the CGExplorer program. Flavobacteriales bacterium strain UJ101 was isolated from a xanthid crab, Atergatis reticulatus, from the East Sea near Korea. The complete genome of strain UJ101 is a 3,074,209 bp, single, circular chromosome with 30.74% GC content. While the UJ101 genome contains a number of annotated genes for many metabolic pathways, such as the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the glyoxylate cycle, genes for the Entner-Douddoroff pathway are not found in the UJ101 genome. Overall, carbon fixation processes were absent but nitrate reduction and denitrification pathways were conserved. The UJ101 genome was compared to genomes from other marine animals (three invertebrate strains and 5 fish strains) and other marine animal- derived genera. Notable results by genome comparisons showed that UJ101 is capable of denitrification and nitrate reduction, and that biotin-thiamine pathway participation varies among marine bacteria; fish-dwelling bacteria, freeliving bacteria, invertebrate-dwelling bacteria, and strain UJ101. Pan-genome analysis of the 16 strains in this study included 7,220 non-redundant genes that covered 62% of the pan-genome. A core-genome of 994 genes was present and consisted of 8% of the genes from the pan-genome. Strain UJ101 is a symbiotic hetero-organotroph isolated from xanthid crab, and is a metabolic generalist with nitrate-reducing abilities but without the ability to synthesize biotin. There is a general tendency of UJ101 and some fish pathogens to prefer thiamine-dependent glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Biotin and thiamine auxotrophy or prototrophy may be used as important markers in microbial community studies.


July 7, 2019  |  

Echinochloa crus-galli genome analysis provides insight into its adaptation and invasiveness as a weed.

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is a pernicious weed in agricultural fields worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying its success in the absence of human intervention are presently unknown. Here we report a draft genome sequence of the hexaploid species E. crus-galli, i.e., a 1.27?Gb assembly representing 90.7% of the predicted genome size. An extremely large repertoire of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases associated with detoxification are found. Two gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of an allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and a phytoalexin momilactone A are found in the E. crus-galli genome, respectively. The allelochemical DIMBOA gene cluster is activated in response to co-cultivation with rice, while the phytoalexin momilactone A gene cluster specifically to infection by pathogenic Pyricularia oryzae. Our results provide a new understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the extreme adaptation of the weed.


July 7, 2019  |  

Determination of the genome and primary transcriptome of syngas fermenting Eubacterium limosum ATCC 8486.

Autotrophic conversion of CO2 to value-added biochemicals has received considerable attention as a sustainable route to replace fossil fuels. Particularly, anaerobic acetogenic bacteria are naturally capable of reducing CO2 or CO to various metabolites. To fully utilize their biosynthetic potential, an understanding of acetogenesis-related genes and their regulatory elements is required. Here, we completed the genome sequence of the syngas fermenting Eubacterium limosum ATCC 8486 and determined its transcription start sites (TSS). We constructed a 4.4?Mb long circular genome with a GC content of 47.2% and 4,090 protein encoding genes. To understand the transcriptional and translational regulation, the primary transcriptome was augmented, identifying 1,458 TSSs containing a high pyrimidine (T/C) and purine nucleotide (A/G) content at the -1 and +1 position, respectively, along with 1,253 5′-untranslated regions, and principal promoter elements such as -10 (TATAAT) and -35 (TTGACA), and Shine-Dalgarno motifs (GGAGR). Further analysis revealed 93 non-coding RNAs, including one for potential transcriptional regulation of the hydrogenase complex via interaction with molybdenum or tungsten cofactors, which in turn controls formate dehydrogenase activity of the initial step of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Our results provide comprehensive genomic information for strain engineering to enhance the syngas fermenting capacity of acetogenic bacteria.


July 7, 2019  |  

Harnessing whole genome sequencing in medical mycology.

Comparative genome sequencing studies of human fungal pathogens enable identification of genes and variants associated with virulence and drug resistance. This review describes current approaches, resources, and advances in applying whole genome sequencing to study clinically important fungal pathogens.Genomes for some important fungal pathogens were only recently assembled, revealing gene family expansions in many species and extreme gene loss in one obligate species. The scale and scope of species sequenced is rapidly expanding, leveraging technological advances to assemble and annotate genomes with higher precision. By using iteratively improved reference assemblies or those generated de novo for new species, recent studies have compared the sequence of isolates representing populations or clinical cohorts. Whole genome approaches provide the resolution necessary for comparison of closely related isolates, for example, in the analysis of outbreaks or sampled across time within a single host.Genomic analysis of fungal pathogens has enabled both basic research and diagnostic studies. The increased scale of sequencing can be applied across populations, and new metagenomic methods allow direct analysis of complex samples.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative genomic analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis serosensitive and seroresistant lineages demonstrate their independent evolution.

The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalishas been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages-the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains aresui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate taxonomic group. The SR and SS lineages, although distinct, clearly form a single species based on multiple criteria including a large common core genome, average nucleotide identity values, GC content, and genome size. Although neither of these lineages arose from within the other based on phylogenetic analyses, the question of how and when these lineages split and then subsequently reunited in the human nasopharynx is explored. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


July 7, 2019  |  

Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production.

Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft). Subspecies identification of mammal-associated C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis (BGC), a syndrome associated with Cfv. The prescribed methods for subspecies identification of the Cff and Cfv isolates are: tolerance to 1 % glycine and H2S production.In this study, we observed the deletion of a putative cysteine transporter in the Cfv strains, which are not able to produce H2S from L-cysteine. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within Cff and Cfv strains divided these strains into five different clades and showed that the Cfv clade and a Cff clade evolved from a single Cff ancestor.Multiple C. fetus clades were observed, which were not consistent with the biochemical differentiation of the strains. This suggests the need for a closer evaluation of the current C. fetus subspecies differentiation, considering that the phenotypic differentiation is still applied in BGC control programs.


July 7, 2019  |  

Microbial sequence typing in the genomic era.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is changing the field of microbial genomics research. NGS allows for a more comprehensive analysis of the diversity, structure and composition of microbial genes and genomes compared to the traditional automated Sanger capillary sequencing at a lower cost. NGS strategies have expanded the versatility of standard and widely used typing approaches based on nucleotide variation in several hundred DNA sequences and a few gene fragments (MLST, MLVA, rMLST and cgMLST). NGS can now accommodate variation in thousands or millions of sequences from selected amplicons to full genomes (WGS, NGMLST and HiMLST). To extract signals from high-dimensional NGS data and make valid statistical inferences, novel analytic and statistical techniques are needed. In this review, we describe standard and new approaches for microbial sequence typing at gene and genome levels and guidelines for subsequent analysis, including methods and computational frameworks. We also present several applications of these approaches to some disciplines, namely genotyping, phylogenetics and molecular epidemiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Omics in weed science: A perspective from genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics approaches

Modern high-throughput molecular and analytical tools offer exciting opportunities to gain a mechanistic understanding of unique traits of weeds. During the past decade, tremendous progress has been made within the weed science discipline using genomic techniques to gain deeper insights into weedy traits such as invasiveness, hybridization, and herbicide resistance. Though the adoption of newer “omics” techniques such as proteomics, metabolomics, and physionomics has been slow, applications of these omics platforms to study plants, especially agriculturally important crops and weeds, have been increasing over the years. In weed science, these platforms are now used more frequently to understand mechanisms of herbicide resistance, weed resistance evolution, and crop–weed interactions. Use of these techniques could help weed scientists to further reduce the knowledge gaps in understanding weedy traits. Although these techniques can provide robust insights about the molecular functioning of plants, employing a single omics platform can rarely elucidate the gene-level regulation and the associated real-time expression of weedy traits due to the complex and overlapping nature of biological interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to integrate the different omics technologies to give a better understanding of molecular functioning of biological systems. This multidimensional integrated approach can therefore offer new avenues for better understanding of questions of interest to weed scientists. This review offers a retrospective and prospective examination of omics platforms employed to investigate weed physiology and novel approaches and new technologies that can provide holistic and knowledge-based weed management strategies for future.


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