We investigated inflow of a wastewater treatment plant and sediment of an urban lake for the presence of Clostridioides difficile by cultivation and PCR. Among seven colonies we sequenced the complete genomes of three: two non-toxigenic isolates from wastewater and one toxigenic isolate from the urban lake. For all obtained isolates, a close genomic relationship with human-derived isolates was observed.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Characterization of a clinical Clostridioides difficile isolate with markedly reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility and a V1143D mutation in rpoB.
The identification and characterization of clinical Clostridioides difficile isolates with reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility.Agar dilution assays were used to determine fidaxomicin MICs. Genome sequence data were obtained by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in addition to amplicon sequencing of rpoB and rpoC alleles. Allelic exchange was used to introduce the identified mutation into C. difficile 630?erm. Replication rates, toxin A/B production and spore formation were determined from the strain with reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility.Out of 50 clinical C. difficile isolates, isolate Goe-91 revealed markedly reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility (MIC >64?mg/L). A V1143D mutation was identified in rpoB of Goe-91. When introduced into C. difficile 630?erm, this mutation decreased fidaxomicin susceptibility (MIC >64?mg/L), but was also associated with a reduced replication rate, low toxin A/B production and markedly reduced spore formation. In contrast, Goe-91, although also reduced in toxin production, showed normal growth rates and only moderately reduced spore formation capacities. This indicates that the rpoBV1143D allele-associated fitness defect is less pronounced in the clinical isolate.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a pathogenic clinical C. difficile isolate with markedly reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility. The lower-than-expected fitness burden of the resistance-mediating rpoBV1143D allele might be an indication for compensatory mechanisms that take place during in vivo selection of mutants.