The identification and characterization of clinical Clostridioides difficile isolates with reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility.Agar dilution assays were used to determine fidaxomicin MICs. Genome sequence data were obtained by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in addition to amplicon sequencing of rpoB and rpoC alleles. Allelic exchange was used to introduce the identified mutation into C. difficile 630?erm. Replication rates, toxin A/B production and spore formation were determined from the strain with reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility.Out of 50 clinical C. difficile isolates, isolate Goe-91 revealed markedly reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility (MIC >64?mg/L). A V1143D mutation was identified in rpoB of Goe-91. When introduced into C. difficile 630?erm, this mutation decreased fidaxomicin susceptibility (MIC >64?mg/L), but was also associated with a reduced replication rate, low toxin A/B production and markedly reduced spore formation. In contrast, Goe-91, although also reduced in toxin production, showed normal growth rates and only moderately reduced spore formation capacities. This indicates that the rpoBV1143D allele-associated fitness defect is less pronounced in the clinical isolate.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a pathogenic clinical C. difficile isolate with markedly reduced fidaxomicin susceptibility. The lower-than-expected fitness burden of the resistance-mediating rpoBV1143D allele might be an indication for compensatory mechanisms that take place during in vivo selection of mutants.
Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy