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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Molecular preadaptation to antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani on the Indian subcontinent.

Antimonials (Sb) were used for decades for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Now abandoned in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) because of Leishmania donovani resistance, this drug offers a unique model for understanding drug resistance dynamics. In a previous phylogenomic study, we found two distinct populations of L. donovani: the core group (CG) in the Gangetic plains and ISC1 in the Nepalese highlands. Sb resistance was only encountered within the CG, and a series of potential markers were identified. Here, we analyzed the development of resistance to trivalent antimonials (SbIII) upon experimental selection in ISC1 and CG strains. We observed that (i)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of repetitive DNA sequences in the Chrysanthemum boreale genome

We previously revealed that the Chrysanthemum boreale genome is highly repetitive; however, the types and nucleotide sequences of repetitive DNA in this diploid wild chrysanthemum are not known. Here, we characterized repetitive DNA sequences in the C. boreale genome by analysing genomic sequences obtained by Illumina sequencing and confirmed their repetitive nature by conducting fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. Annotation of the obtained DNA sequences revealed that microsatellite-containing genomic sequences exhibited similarity with genomic sequences in Chrysanthemum morifolium, indicating sequence conservation of repetitive DNA sequences between the two Chrysanthemum species. Two superfamilies of repetitive DNA, Copia and Gypsy, belonging…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The case for not masking away repetitive DNA

In the course of analyzing whole-genome data, it is common practice to mask or filter out repetitive regions of a genome, such as transposable elements and endogenous retroviruses, in order to focus only on genes and thus simplify the results. This Commentary is a plea from one member of the Mobile DNA community to all gene-centric researchers: please do not ignore the repetitive fraction of the genome. Please stop narrowing your findings by only analyzing a minority of the genome, and instead broaden your analyses to include the rich biology of repetitive and mobile DNA. In this article, I present…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

TriPoly: haplotype estimation for polyploids using sequencing data of related individuals.

Knowledge of haplotypes, i.e. phased and ordered marker alleles on a chromosome, is essential to answer many questions in genetics and genomics. By generating short pieces of DNA sequence, high-throughput modern sequencing technologies make estimation of haplotypes possible for single individuals. In polyploids, however, haplotype estimation methods usually require deep coverage to achieve sufficient accuracy. This often renders sequencing-based approaches too costly to be applied to large populations needed in studies of Quantitative Trait Loci.We propose a novel haplotype estimation method for polyploids, TriPoly, that combines sequencing data with Mendelian inheritance rules to infer haplotypes in parent-offspring trios. Using realistic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomes and transcriptomes of duckweeds.

Duckweeds (Lemnaceae family) are the smallest flowering plants that adapt to the aquatic environment. They are regarded as the promising sustainable feedstock with the characteristics of high starch storage, fast propagation, and global distribution. The duckweed genome size varies 13-fold ranging from 150 Mb in Spirodela polyrhiza to 1,881 Mb in Wolffia arrhiza. With the development of sequencing technology and bioinformatics, five duckweed genomes from Spirodela and Lemna genera are sequenced and assembled. The genome annotations discover that they share similar protein orthologs, whereas the repeat contents could mainly explain the genome size difference. The gene families responsible for cell…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The recombination landscape of Drosophila virilis is robust to transposon activation in hybrid dysgenesis

DNA damage in the germline is a double-edged sword. Induced double-strand breaks establish the foundation for meiotic recombination and proper chromosome segregation but can also pose a significant challenge for genome stability. Within the germline, transposable elements are powerful agents of double-strand break formation. How different types of DNA damage are resolved within the germline is poorly understood. For example, little is known about the relationship between the frequency of double-stranded breaks, both endogenous and exogenous, and the decision to repair DNA through one of the many pathways, including crossing over and gene conversion. Here we use the Drosophila virilis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolutionary emergence of drug resistance in Candida opportunistic pathogens.

Fungal infections, such as candidiasis caused by Candida, pose a problem of growing medical concern. In developed countries, the incidence of Candida infections is increasing due to the higher survival of susceptible populations, such as immunocompromised patients or the elderly. Existing treatment options are limited to few antifungal drug families with efficacies that vary depending on the infecting species. In this context, the emergence and spread of resistant Candida isolates are being increasingly reported. Understanding how resistance can evolve within naturally susceptible species is key to developing novel, more effective treatment strategies. However, in contrast to the situation of antibiotic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Measuring the mappability spectrum of reference genome assemblies

The ability to infer actionable information from genomic variation data in a resequencing experiment relies on accurately aligning the sequences to a reference genome. However, this accuracy is inherently limited by the quality of the reference assembly and the repetitive content of the subject’s genome. As long read sequencing technologies become more widespread, it is crucial to investigate the expected improvements in alignment accuracy and variant analysis over existing short read methods. The ability to quantify the read length and error rate necessary to uniquely map regions of interest in a sequence allows users to make informed decisions regarding experiment…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Pilot satellitome analysis of the model plant, Physcomitrellapatens, revealed a transcribed and high-copy IGS related tandem repeat.

Satellite DNA (satDNA) constitutes a substantial part of eukaryotic genomes. In the last decade, it has been shown that satDNA is not an inert part of the genome and its function extends beyond the nuclear membrane. However, the number of model plant species suitable for studying the novel horizons of satDNA functionality is low. Here, we explored the satellitome of the model “basal” plant, Physcomitrellapatens (Hedwig, 1801) Bruch & Schimper, 1849 (moss), which has a number of advantages for deep functional and evolutionary research. Using a newly developed pyTanFinder pipeline (https://github.com/Kirovez/pyTanFinder) coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Bridging gaps in transposable element research with single-molecule and single-cell technologies

More than half of the genomic landscape in humans and many other organisms is composed of repetitive DNA, which mostly derives from transposable elements (TEs) and viruses. Recent technological advances permit improved assessment of the repetitive content across genomes and newly developed molecular assays have revealed important roles of TEs and viruses in host genome evolution and organization. To update on our current understanding of TE biology and to promote new interdisciplinary strategies for the TE research community, leading experts gathered for the 2nd Uppsala Transposon Symposium on October 4–5, 2018 in Uppsala, Sweden. Using cutting-edge single-molecule and single-cell approaches,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

De novo genome assembly of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) developed through a combination of linked-reads and long-read technologies

Long-read sequencing has greatly contributed to the generation of high quality assemblies, albeit at a high cost. It is also not always clear how to combine sequencing platforms. We sequenced the genome of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), the most important pest in the olive fruits agribusiness industry, using Illumina short-reads, mate-pairs, 10x Genomics linked-reads, Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). The 10x linked-reads assembly gave the most contiguous assembly with an N50 of 2.16 Mb. Scaffolding the linked-reads assembly using long-reads from ONT gave a more contiguous assembly with scaffold N50 of 4.59 Mb. We also…

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