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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of degradative Novosphingobium strains with special reference to the microcystin-degrading Novosphingobium sp. THN1

Bacteria in genus Novosphingobium associated with biodegradation of substrates are prevalent in environments such as lakes, soil, sea, wood and sediments. To better understand the characteristics linked to their wide distribution and metabolic versatility, we report the whole genome sequence of Novosphingobium sp. THN1, a microcystin-degrading strain previously isolated by Jiang et al. (2011) from cyanobacteria-blooming water samples from Lake Taihu, China. We performed a genomic comparison analysis of Novosphingobium sp. THN1 with 21 other degradative Novosphingobium strains downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using 16S rRNA genes, core genes, protein-coding sequences, and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of the antimonite- and arsenite-oxidizing bacterium Bosea sp. AS-1 and its potential application in arsenic removal.

Arsenic (As) and antinomy (Sb) usually coexist in natural environments where both of them pollute soils and water. Microorganisms that oxidize arsenite [As(III)] and tolerate Sb have great potential in As and Sb bioremediation, In this study, a Gram-negative bacterial strain, Bosea sp. AS-1, was isolated from a mine slag sample collected in Xikuangshan Sb mine in China. AS-1 could tolerate 120?mM of As(III) and 50?mM of antimonite [Sb(III)]. It could also oxidize 2?mM of As(III) or Sb(III) completely under heterotrophic and aerobic conditions. Interestingly, strain AS-1 preferred to oxidize As(III) with yeast extract as the carbon source, whereas Sb(III)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insight into metabolic versatility of an aromatic compounds-degrading Arthrobacter sp. YC-RL1.

The genus Arthrobacter is ubiquitously distributed in different natural environments. Many xenobiotic-degrading Arthrobacter strains have been isolated and described; however, few have been systematically characterized with regard to multiple interrelated metabolic pathways and the genes that encode them. In this study, the biodegradability of seven aromatic compounds by Arthrobacter sp. YC-RL1 was investigated. Strain YC-RL1 could efficiently degrade p-xylene (PX), naphthalene, phenanthrene, biphenyl, p-nitrophenol (PNP), and bisphenol A (BPA) under both separated and mixed conditions. Based on the detected metabolic intermediates, metabolic pathways of naphthalene, biphenyl, PNP, and BPA were proposed, which indicated that strain YC-RL1 harbors systematic metabolic pathways…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequence and metabolic analysis of a fluoranthene-degrading strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, showed excellent degradation ability toward diverse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many studies have been done to improve its degradation ability. However, the molecular mechanisms of PAHs degradation in DN1 strain are unclear. In this study, the whole genome of DN1 strain was sequenced and analyzed. Its genome contains 6,641,902 bp and encodes 6,684 putative open reading frames (ORFs), which has the largest genome in almost all the comparative Pseudomonas strains. Results of gene annotation showed that this strain harbored over 100 candidate genes involved in PAHs degradation, including those encoding 25 dioxygenases, four…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Functional genomic analysis of phthalate acid ester (PAE) catabolism genes in the versatile PAE-mineralising bacterium Rhodococcus sp. 2G.

Microbial degradation is considered the most promising method for removing phthalate acid esters (PAEs) from polluted environments; however, a comprehensive genomic understanding of the entire PAE catabolic process is still lacking. In this study, the repertoire of PAE catabolism genes in the metabolically versatile bacterium Rhodococcus sp. 2G was examined using genomic, metabolic, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 4930 coding genes were identified from the 5.6?Mb genome of the 2G strain, including 337 esterase/hydrolase genes and 48 transferase and decarboxylase genes that were involved in hydrolysing PAEs into phthalate acid (PA) and decarboxylating PA into benzoic acid (BA). One…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Functional metagenomics identifies an exosialidase with an inverting catalytic mechanism that defines a new glycoside hydrolase family (GH156).

Exosialidases are glycoside hydrolases that remove a single terminal sialic acid residue from oligosaccharides. They are widely distributed in biology, having been found in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and certain viruses. Most characterized prokaryotic sialidases are from organisms that are pathogenic or commensal with mammals. However, in this study, we used functional metagenomic screening to seek microbial sialidases encoded by environmental DNA isolated from an extreme ecological niche, a thermal spring. Using recombinant expression of potential exosialidase candidates and a fluorogenic sialidase substrate, we discovered an exosialidase having no homology to known sialidases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this protein is a member…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Comparison of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the genome of Clostridium autoethanogenum and analysis of CRISPR systems in industrial relevant Clostridia.

Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published.A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The methylomes of six bacteria.

Six bacterial genomes, Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, Chromohalobacter salexigens, Vibrio breoganii 1C-10, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 81-176 and C. jejuni NCTC 11168, all of which had previously been sequenced using other platforms were re-sequenced using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing specifically to analyze their methylomes. In every case a number of new N(6)-methyladenine ((m6)A) and N(4)-methylcytosine ((m4)C) methylation patterns were discovered and the DNA methyltransferases (MTases) responsible for those methylation patterns were assigned. In 15 cases, it was possible to match MTase genes with MTase recognition sequences without further sub-cloning. Two Type I restriction systems required sub-cloning to…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Exploring the roles of DNA methylation in the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

We performed whole-genome analyses of DNA methylation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to examine its possible role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing revealed extensive methylation of adenine (N6mA) throughout the genome. These methylated bases were located in five sequence motifs, including three novel targets for type I restriction/modification enzymes. The sequence motifs targeted by putative methyltranferases were determined via SMRT sequencing of gene knockout mutants. In addition, we found that S. oneidensis MR-1 cultures grown under various culture conditions displayed different DNA methylation patterns. However, the small number of differentially methylated sites could not…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

PacBio SMRT assembly of a complex multi-replicon genome reveals chlorocatechol degradative operon in a region of genome plasticity.

We have sequenced a Burkholderia genome that contains multiple replicons and large repetitive elements that would make it inherently difficult to assemble by short read sequencing technologies. We illustrate how the integrated long read correction algorithms implemented through the PacBio Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology successfully provided a de novo assembly that is a reasonable estimate of both the gene content and genome organization without making any further modifications. This assembly is comparable to related organisms assembled by more labour intensive methods. Our assembled genome revealed regions of genome plasticity for further investigation, one of which harbours a chlorocatechol…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Insight into the recent genome duplication of the halophilic yeast Hortaea werneckii: combining an improved genome with gene expression and chromatin structure.

Extremophilic organisms demonstrate the flexibility and adaptability of basic biological processes by highlighting how cell physiology adapts to environmental extremes. Few eukaryotic extremophiles have been well studied and only a small number are amenable to laboratory cultivation and manipulation. A detailed characterization of the genome architecture of such organisms is important to illuminate how they adapt to environmental stresses. One excellent example of a fungal extremophile is the halophile Hortaea werneckii (Pezizomycotina, Dothideomycetes, Capnodiales), a yeast-like fungus able to thrive at near-saturating concentrations of sodium chloride and which is also tolerant to both UV irradiation and desiccation. Given its unique…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, the first bacterium known to degrade chloroaromatic compounds.

Pseudomonas knackmussii B13 was the first strain to be isolated in 1974 that could degrade chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. This discovery was the prologue for subsequent characterization of numerous bacterial metabolic pathways, for genetic and biochemical studies, and which spurred ideas for pollutant bioremediation. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of B13 using next generation sequencing technologies and optical mapping. Genome annotation indicated that B13 has a variety of metabolic pathways for degrading monoaromatic hydrocarbons including chlorobenzoate, aminophenol, anthranilate and hydroxyquinol, but not polyaromatic compounds. Comparative genome analysis revealed that B13 is closest to Pseudomonas denitrificans and Pseudomonas…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii.

Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white-rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown-rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. C. torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the unclassified iron-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic Burkholderiales bacterium GJ-E10, isolated from an acidic river.

Burkholderiales bacterium GJ-E10, isolated from the Tamagawa River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, is an unclassified, iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacterium. Its single circular genome, consisting of 3,276,549 bp, was sequenced by using three types of next-generation sequencers and the sequences were then confirmed by PCR-based Sanger sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Fukushima et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 isolated from Lake Washington sediment.

Sequencing the genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 from Lake Washington sediment is announced. From the genome content, a versatile life-style is predicted, but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. Copyright © 2015 McTaggart et al.

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