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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome evolution across 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates.

Large-scale population genomic surveys are essential to explore the phenotypic diversity of natural populations. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and phenotyping of 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates, which together provide an accurate evolutionary picture of the genomic variants that shape the species-wide phenotypic landscape of this yeast. Genomic analyses support a single ‘out-of-China’ origin for this species, followed by several independent domestication events. Although domesticated isolates exhibit high variation in ploidy, aneuploidy and genome content, genome evolution in wild isolates is mainly driven by the accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms. A common feature is the extensive loss of heterozygosity, which…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The N6-adenine methylation in yeast genome profiled by single-molecule technology.

The most common and abundant DNA modification is 5-meth- ylcytosine (5mC), which has been well-established as an epigenetic mark regulating gene expression in eukaryotes (Jones, 2012). Another DNA modification N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6mA), pre- viously reported as a widespread DNA methylation in prokaryotes, plays an important role in gene expression, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and host-pathogen interaction (Messer and Noyer-Weidner, 1988; Lu et al., 1994; Collier et al., 2007). The knowledge of 6mA in eukaryotes has been very limited until the recent development of high-throughput sequencing and high-sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, which have greatly contributed to the investigation of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-oleate yeast oil without polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Oleate-enriched triacylglycerides are well-suited for lubricant applications that require high oxidative stability. Fatty acid carbon chain length and degree of desaturation are key determinants of triacylglyceride properties and the ability to manipulate fatty acid composition in living organisms is critical to developing a source of bio-based oil tailored to meet specific application requirements.We sought to engineer the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for production of high-oleate triacylglyceride oil. We studied the effect of deletions and overexpressions in the fatty acid and triacylglyceride synthesis pathways to identify modifications that increase oleate levels. Oleic acid accumulation in triacylglycerides was promoted by exchanging the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

In vitro DNA SCRaMbLE.

The power of synthetic biology has enabled the expression of heterologous pathways in cells, as well as genome-scale synthesis projects. The complexity of biological networks makes rational de novo design a grand challenge. Introducing features that confer genetic flexibility is a powerful strategy for downstream engineering. Here we develop an in vitro method of DNA library construction based on structural variation to accomplish this goal. The “in vitro SCRaMbLE system” uses Cre recombinase mixed in a test tube with purified DNA encoding multiple loxPsym sites. Using a ß-carotene pathway designed for expression in yeast as an example, we demonstrate top-down…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Precise control of SCRaMbLE in synthetic haploid and diploid yeast.

Compatibility between host cells and heterologous pathways is a challenge for constructing organisms with high productivity or gain of function. Designer yeast cells incorporating the Synthetic Chromosome Rearrangement and Modification by LoxP-mediated Evolution (SCRaMbLE) system provide a platform for generating genotype diversity. Here we construct a genetic AND gate to enable precise control of the SCRaMbLE method to generate synthetic haploid and diploid yeast with desired phenotypes. The yield of carotenoids is increased to 1.5-fold by SCRaMbLEing haploid strains and we determine that the deletion of YEL013W is responsible for the increase. Based on the SCRaMbLEing in diploid strains, we…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome analysis of three yeast strains used for production of sherry-like wines revealed genetic traits specific to Flor yeasts.

Flor yeast strains represent a specialized group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts used for biological wine aging. We have sequenced the genomes of three flor strains originated from different geographic regions and used for production of sherry-like wines in Russia. According to the obtained phylogeny of 118 yeast strains, flor strains form very tight cluster adjacent to the main wine clade. SNP analysis versus available genomes of wine and flor strains revealed 2,270 genetic variants in 1,337 loci specific to flor strains. Gene ontology analysis in combination with gene content evaluation revealed a complex landscape of possibly adaptive genetic changes in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and probiotic characterization of SJP-SNU strain of Pichia kudriavzevii.

The yeast strain SJP-SNU was investigated as a probiotic and was characterized with respect to growth temperature, bile salt resistance, hydrogen sulfide reducing activity, intestinal survival ability and chicken embryo pathogenicity. In addition, we determined the complete genomic and mitochondrial sequences of SJP-SNU and conducted comparative genomics analyses. SJP-SNU grew rapidly at 37 °C and formed colonies on MacConkey agar containing bile salt. SJP-SNU reduced hydrogen sulfide produced by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis and, after being fed to 4-week-old chickens, could be isolated from cecal feces. SJP-SNU did not cause mortality in 10-day-old chicken embryos. From 13 initial contigs, 11 were finally…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Long-read sequencing data analysis for yeasts.

Long-read sequencing technologies have become increasingly popular due to their strengths in resolving complex genomic regions. As a leading model organism with small genome size and great biotechnological importance, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many isolates currently being sequenced with long reads. However, analyzing long-read sequencing data to produce high-quality genome assembly and annotation remains challenging. Here, we present a modular computational framework named long-read sequencing data analysis for yeasts (LRSDAY), the first one-stop solution that streamlines this process. Starting from the raw sequencing reads, LRSDAY can produce chromosome-level genome assembly and comprehensive genome annotation in a highly automated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Creating a functional single-chromosome yeast.

Eukaryotic genomes are generally organized in multiple chromosomes. Here we have created a functional single-chromosome yeast from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cell containing sixteen linear chromosomes, by successive end-to-end chromosome fusions and centromere deletions. The fusion of sixteen native linear chromosomes into a single chromosome results in marked changes to the global three-dimensional structure of the chromosome due to the loss of all centromere-associated inter-chromosomal interactions, most telomere-associated inter-chromosomal interactions and 67.4% of intra-chromosomal interactions. However, the single-chromosome and wild-type yeast cells have nearly identical transcriptome and similar phenome profiles. The giant single chromosome can support cell life, although this…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome sequencing, de novo assembly and phenotypic profiling for the new budding yeast species Saccharomyces jurei.

Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex consist of yeast species, which are not only important in the fermentation industry but are also model systems for genomic and ecological analysis. Here, we present the complete genome assemblies of Saccharomyces jurei, a newly discovered Saccharomyces sensu stricto species from high altitude oaks. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis revealed that S. jurei is more closely related to S. mikatae, than S. cerevisiae, and S. paradoxus The karyotype of S. jurei presents two reciprocal chromosomal translocations between chromosome VI/VII and I/XIII when compared to the S. cerevisiae genome. Interestingly, while the rearrangement I/XIII is unique to S.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ring synthetic chromosome V SCRaMbLE.

Structural variations (SVs) exert important functional impacts on biological phenotypic diversity. Here we show a ring synthetic yeast chromosome V (ring_synV) can be used to continuously generate complex genomic variations and improve the production of prodeoxyviolacein (PDV) by applying Synthetic Chromosome Recombination and Modification by LoxP-mediated Evolution (SCRaMbLE) in haploid yeast cells. The SCRaMbLE of ring_synV generates aneuploid yeast strains with increased PDV productivity, and we identify aneuploid chromosome I, III, VI, XII, XIII, and ring_synV. The neochromosome of SCRaMbLEd ring_synV generated more unbalanced forms of variations, including duplication, insertions, and balanced forms of translocations and inversions than its linear…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Variation graph toolkit improves read mapping by representing genetic variation in the reference.

Reference genomes guide our interpretation of DNA sequence data. However, conventional linear references represent only one version of each locus, ignoring variation in the population. Poor representation of an individual’s genome sequence impacts read mapping and introduces bias. Variation graphs are bidirected DNA sequence graphs that compactly represent genetic variation across a population, including large-scale structural variation such as inversions and duplications. Previous graph genome software implementations have been limited by scalability or topological constraints. Here we present vg, a toolkit of computational methods for creating, manipulating, and using these structures as references at the scale of the human genome.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of the yeast M14, an industrial brewing yeast strain widely used in China

The lager brewing yeast M14 is the most widely used yeast strain in the high gravity brewing process in China. To investigate the characteristics of this strain, the genome of the yeast M14 was sequenced and the genome annotation information is presented in this study. The current assembly contained 133 scaffolds and its total size was around 23?Mb with a GC content of 38.98%. The brewing yeast M14 is a hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae?×?Saccharomyces uvarum at the genomic level and its genome is comprised of one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. uvarum. Furthermore, the functions of the 9,796 protein coding…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic Tandem Quadruplication is Associated with Ketoconazole Resistance in Malassezia pachydermatis.

Malassezia pachydermatis is a commensal yeast found on the skin of dogs. However, M. pachydermatis is also considered an opportunistic pathogen and is associated with various canine skin diseases including otitis externa and atopic dermatitis, which usually require treatment using an azole antifungal drug, such as ketoconazole. In this study, we isolated a ketoconazole-resistant strain of M. pachydermatis, designated “KCTC 27587,” from the external ear canal of a dog with otitis externa and analyzed its resistance mechanism. To understand the mechanism underlying ketoconazole resistance of the clinical isolate M. pachydermatis KCTC 27587, the whole genome of the yeast was sequenced…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Regulation of yeast-to-hyphae transition in Yarrowia lipolytica.

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica undergoes a morphological transition from yeast-to-hyphal growth in response to environmental conditions. A forward genetic screen was used to identify mutants that reliably remain in the yeast phase, which were then assessed by whole-genome sequencing. All the smooth mutants identified, so named because of their colony morphology, exhibit independent loss of DNA at a repetitive locus made up of interspersed ribosomal DNA and short 10- to 40-mer telomere-like repeats. The loss of repetitive DNA is associated with downregulation of genes with stress response elements (5′-CCCCT-3′) and upregulation of genes with cell cycle box (5′-ACGCG-3′) motifs in…

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