The most common and abundant DNA modification is 5-meth- ylcytosine (5mC), which has been well-established as an epigenetic mark regulating gene expression in eukaryotes (Jones, 2012). Another DNA modification N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6mA), pre- viously reported as a widespread DNA methylation in prokaryotes, plays an important role in gene expression, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and host-pathogen interaction (Messer and Noyer-Weidner, 1988; Lu et al., 1994; Collier et al., 2007). The knowledge of 6mA in eukaryotes has been very limited until the recent development of high-throughput sequencing and high-sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, which have greatly contributed to the investigation of 6mA in fungi, animals and plants (Fu et al., 2015; Greer et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015; Koziol et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016; Liang et al., 2017; Mondo et al., 2017). Recent studies revealed that 6mA abundance is vari- able, and it is relative higher in Chlamydomonas and early- diverging fungi species than other eukaryotes. The distribution pat- terns of 6mA and their functions are not quite conserved among or- ganisms. 6mA was found enriched near the transcription start sites (TSS) in Chlamydomonas (Fu et al., 2015) and at the repeats in Drosophila, Mus musculus and Danio rerio (Zhang et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016), and commonly depleted from gene exons in Xenopus laevis and M. musculus (Koziol et al., 2016). In several species, 6mA was associated with transcriptionally active genes (Fu et al., 2015; Mondo et al., 2017), and it was also found correlated with gene silencing in mammalian embryonic stem cells (Wu et al., 2016).
Journal: Journal of genetics and genomics