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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT): population-scale mobile element discovery and biology.

Mobile element insertions (MEIs) represent ~25% of all structural variants in human genomes. Moreover, when they disrupt genes, MEIs can influence human traits and diseases. Therefore, MEIs should be fully discovered along with other forms of genetic variation in whole genome sequencing (WGS) projects involving population genetics, human diseases, and clinical genomics. Here, we describe the Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT), which was developed as part of the 1000 Genomes Project to perform MEI discovery on a population scale. Using both Illumina WGS data and simulations, we demonstrate that MELT outperforms existing MEI discovery tools in terms of speed, scalability,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Structural variation offers new home for disease associations and gene discovery

Following completion of the Human Genome Project, most studies of human genetic variation have centered on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs are numerous in individual genomes and serve as useful genetic markers in association studies across a population. These markers have been leveraged to identify genetic loci for disease risk and draw associations with numerous traits of interest. Despite their usefulness, SNPs do not tell the whole story. For example, most SNPs are associated with only a small increased risk of disease, and they usually cannot identify on their own which genes are causal. This has resulted in what many…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Lightning-fast genome variant detection with GROM.

Current human whole genome sequencing projects produce massive amounts of data, often creating significant computational challenges. Different approaches have been developed for each type of genome variant and method of its detection, necessitating users to run multiple algorithms to find variants.We present GROM (Genome Rearrangement OmniMapper), a novel comprehensive variant detection algorithm accepting aligned read files as input and finding SNVs, indels, structural variants (SVs), and copy number variants (CNVs). We show that GROM outperforms state-of-the-art methods on seven validated benchmarks using two whole genome sequencing (WGS) datasets. Additionally, GROM boasts lightning fast run times, analyzing a 50x WGS human…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

GRIDSS: sensitive and specific genomic rearrangement detection using positional de Bruijn graph assembly.

The identification of genomic rearrangements with high sensitivity and specificity using massively parallel sequencing remains a major challenge, particularly in precision medicine and cancer research. Here, we describe a new method for detecting rearrangements, GRIDSS (Genome Rearrangement IDentification Software Suite). GRIDSS is a multithreaded structural variant (SV) caller that performs efficient genome-wide break-end assembly prior to variant calling using a novel positional de Bruijn graph-based assembler. By combining assembly, split read, and read pair evidence using a probabilistic scoring, GRIDSS achieves high sensitivity and specificity on simulated, cell line, and patient tumor data, recently winning SV subchallenge #5 of the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Variant review with the Integrative Genomics Viewer.

Manual review of aligned reads for confirmation and interpretation of variant calls is an important step in many variant calling pipelines for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Visual inspection can greatly increase the confidence in calls, reduce the risk of false positives, and help characterize complex events. The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) was one of the first tools to provide NGS data visualization, and it currently provides a rich set of tools for inspection, validation, and interpretation of NGS datasets, as well as other types of genomic data. Here, we present a short overview of IGV’s variant review features for both…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Tools for annotation and comparison of structural variation.

The impact of structural variants (SVs) on a variety of organisms and diseases like cancer has become increasingly evident. Methods for SV detection when studying genomic differences across cells, individuals or populations are being actively developed. Currently, just a few methods are available to compare different SVs callsets, and no specialized methods are available to annotate SVs that account for the unique characteristics of these variant types. Here, we introduce SURVIVOR_ant, a tool that compares types and breakpoints for candidate SVs from different callsets and enables fast comparison of SVs to genomic features such as genes and repetitive regions, as…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Hunting structural variants: Population by population

Until recently, most population-scale genome sequencing studies have focused on identifying single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to explore genetic differences between individuals. Like so many SNV-based genome-wide association studies, however, these efforts have had difficulty identifying causative genetic mechanisms underlying most complex functions. More and more, the genomics community has realised that structural variation is likely responsible for many of the traits and phenotypes that scientists have not been able to attribute to SNVs. This class of variants, defined as genetic differences of 50 bp or larger, accounts for most of the DNA sequence differences between any two people. Structural variants…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Detection of complex structural variation from paired-end sequencing data

Detecting structural variants (SVs) from sequencing data is a key problem in genome analysis, but the full diversity of SVs is not captured by most methods. We introduce the Automated Reconstruction of Complex Structural Variants (ARC-SV) method, which detects a broad class of structural variants from paired-end whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. Analysis of samples from NA12878 and HuRef suggests that complex SVs are often misclassified by traditional methods. We validated our results both experimentally and by comparison to whole genome assembly and PacBio data; ARC-SV compares favorably to existing algorithms in general and gives state-of-the-art results on complex SV…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Contributions of Zea mays subspecies mexicana haplotypes to modern maize.

Maize was domesticated from lowland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), but the contribution of highland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana, hereafter mexicana) to modern maize is not clear. Here, two genomes for Mo17 (a modern maize inbred) and mexicana are assembled using a meta-assembly strategy after sequencing of 10 lines derived from a maize-teosinte cross. Comparative analyses reveal a high level of diversity between Mo17, B73, and mexicana, including three Mb-size structural rearrangements. The maize spontaneous mutation rate is estimated to be 2.17?×?10-8 ~3.87?×?10-8 per site per generation with a nonrandom distribution across the genome. A higher deleterious mutation rate…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Hidden genetic variation shapes the structure of functional elements in Drosophila.

Mutations that add, subtract, rearrange, or otherwise refashion genome structure often affect phenotypes, although the fragmented nature of most contemporary assemblies obscures them. To discover such mutations, we assembled the first new reference-quality genome of Drosophila melanogaster since its initial sequencing. By comparing this new genome to the existing D. melanogaster assembly, we created a structural variant map of unprecedented resolution and identified extensive genetic variation that has remained hidden until now. Many of these variants constitute candidates underlying phenotypic variation, including tandem duplications and a transposable element insertion that amplifies the expression of detoxification-related genes associated with nicotine resistance.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

SV2: Accurate structural variation genotyping and de novo mutation detection from whole genomes.

Structural Variation (SV) detection from short-read whole genome sequencing is error prone, presenting significant challenges for population or family-based studies of disease.Here we describe SV2, a machine-learning algorithm for genotyping deletions and duplications from paired-end sequencing data. SV2 can rapidly integrate variant calls from multiple structural variant discovery algorithms into a unified call set with high genotyping accuracy and capability to detect de novo mutations. SV2 is freely available on GitHub (https://github.com/dantaki/SV2).Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.© The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Copy number variation and expression analysis reveals a nonorthologous pinta gene family member involved in butterfly vision.

Vertebrate (cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein) and Drosophila (prolonged depolarization afterpotential is not apparent [PINTA]) proteins with a CRAL-TRIO domain transport retinal-based chromophores that bind to opsin proteins and are necessary for phototransduction. The CRAL-TRIO domain gene family is composed of genes that encode proteins with a common N-terminal structural domain. Although there is an expansion of this gene family in Lepidoptera, there is no lepidopteran ortholog of pinta. Further, the function of these genes in lepidopterans has not yet been established. Here, we explored the molecular evolution and expression of CRAL-TRIO domain genes in the butterfly Heliconius melpomene in order to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A recurrence-based approach for validating structural variation using long-read sequencing technology.

Although numerous algorithms have been developed to identify structural variations (SVs) in genomic sequences, there is a dearth of approaches that can be used to evaluate their results. This is significant as the accurate identification of structural variation is still an outstanding but important problem in genomics. The emergence of new sequencing technologies that generate longer sequence reads can, in theory, provide direct evidence for all types of SVs regardless of the length of the region through which it spans. However, current efforts to use these data in this manner require the use of large computational resources to assemble these…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The state of whole-genome sequencing

Over the last decade, a technological paradigm shift has slashed the cost of DNA sequencing by over five orders of magnitude. Today, the cost of sequencing a human genome is a few thousand dollars, and it continues to fall. Here, we review the most cost-effective platforms for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as well as emerging technologies that may displace or complement these. We also discuss the practical challenges of generating and analyzing WGS data, and how WGS has unlocked new strategies for discovering genes and variants underlying both rare and common human diseases.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic resources and their influence on the detection of the signal of positive selection in genome scans.

Genome scans represent powerful approaches to investigate the action of natural selection on the genetic variation of natural populations and to better understand local adaptation. This is very useful, for example, in the field of conservation biology and evolutionary biology. Thanks to Next Generation Sequencing, genomic resources are growing exponentially, improving genome scan analyses in non-model species. Thousands of SNPs called using Reduced Representation Sequencing are increasingly used in genome scans. Besides, genome sequences are also becoming increasingly available, allowing better processing of short-read data, offering physical localization of variants, and improving haplotype reconstruction and data imputation. Ultimately, genome sequences…

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