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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The state of whole-genome sequencing

Over the last decade, a technological paradigm shift has slashed the cost of DNA sequencing by over five orders of magnitude. Today, the cost of sequencing a human genome is a few thousand dollars, and it continues to fall. Here, we review the most cost-effective platforms for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as well as emerging technologies that may displace or complement these. We also discuss the practical challenges of generating and analyzing WGS data, and how WGS has unlocked new strategies for discovering genes and variants underlying both rare and common human diseases.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic resources and their influence on the detection of the signal of positive selection in genome scans.

Genome scans represent powerful approaches to investigate the action of natural selection on the genetic variation of natural populations and to better understand local adaptation. This is very useful, for example, in the field of conservation biology and evolutionary biology. Thanks to Next Generation Sequencing, genomic resources are growing exponentially, improving genome scan analyses in non-model species. Thousands of SNPs called using Reduced Representation Sequencing are increasingly used in genome scans. Besides, genome sequences are also becoming increasingly available, allowing better processing of short-read data, offering physical localization of variants, and improving haplotype reconstruction and data imputation. Ultimately, genome sequences…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Resolving complex structural genomic rearrangements using a randomized approach.

Complex chromosomal rearrangements are structural genomic alterations involving multiple instances of deletions, duplications, inversions, or translocations that co-occur either on the same chromosome or represent different overlapping events on homologous chromosomes. We present SVelter, an algorithm that identifies regions of the genome suspected to harbor a complex event and then resolves the structure by iteratively rearranging the local genome structure, in a randomized fashion, with each structure scored against characteristics of the observed sequencing data. SVelter is able to accurately reconstruct complex chromosomal rearrangements when compared to well-characterized genomes that have been deeply sequenced with both short and long reads.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Rapid evolution of citrate utilization by Escherichia coli by direct selection requires citT and dctA.

The isolation of aerobic citrate-utilizing Escherichia coli (Cit(+)) in long-term evolution experiments (LTEE) has been termed a rare, innovative, presumptive speciation event. We hypothesized that direct selection would rapidly yield the same class of E. coli Cit(+) mutants and follow the same genetic trajectory: potentiation, actualization, and refinement. This hypothesis was tested with wild-type E. coli strain B and with K-12 and three K-12 derivatives: an E. coli ?rpoS::kan mutant (impaired for stationary-phase survival), an E. coli ?citT::kan mutant (deleted for the anaerobic citrate/succinate antiporter), and an E. coli ?dctA::kan mutant (deleted for the aerobic succinate transporter). E. coli underwent…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Third-generation sequencing and the future of genomics

Third-generation long-range DNA sequencing and mapping technologies are creating a renaissance in high-quality genome sequencing. Unlike second-generation sequencing, which produces short reads a few hundred base-pairs long, third-generation single-molecule technologies generate over 10,000 bp reads or map over 100,000 bp molecules. We analyze how increased read lengths can be used to address long-standing problems in de novo genome assembly, structural variation analysis and haplotype phasing.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequences of three European laboratory derivatives from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933, including two plasmids.

Escherichia coliO157:H7 EDL933, isolated in 1982 in the United States, was the first enterohemorrhagicE. coli(EHEC) strain sequenced. Unfortunately, European labs can no longer receive the original strain. We checked three European EDL933 derivatives and found major genetic deviations (deletions, inversions) in two strains. All EDL933 strains contain the cryptic EHEC-plasmid, not reported before. Copyright © 2016 Fellner et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Exploring structural variants in environmentally sensitive gene families.

Environmentally sensitive plant gene families like NBS-LRRs, receptor kinases, defensins and others, are known to be highly variable. However, most existing strategies for discovering and describing structural variation in complex gene families provide incomplete and imperfect results. The move to de novo genome assemblies for multiple accessions or individuals within a species is enabling more comprehensive and accurate insights about gene family variation. Earlier array-based genome hybridization and sequence-based read mapping methods were limited by their reliance on a reference genome and by misplacement of paralogous sequences. Variant discovery based on de novo genome assemblies overcome the problems arising from…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization.

The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-Ss4R rediploidization process. Comparisons of duplicate gene expression patterns across a wide range of tissues with orthologous genes from a pre-Ss4R outgroup unexpectedly demonstrate far more instances of neofunctionalization than subfunctionalization. Surprisingly, we find…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Conservation of the essential genome among Caulobacter and Brevundimonas species.

When the genomes of Caulobacter isolates NA1000 and K31 were compared, numerous genome rearrangements were observed. In contrast, similar comparisons of closely related species of other bacterial genera revealed nominal rearrangements. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA indicated that K31 is more closely related to Caulobacter henricii CB4 than to other known Caulobacters. Therefore, we sequenced the CB4 genome and compared it to all of the available Caulobacter genomes to study genome rearrangements, discern the conservation of the NA1000 essential genome, and address concerns about using 16S rRNA to group Caulobacter species. We also sequenced the novel bacteria, Brevundimonas…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Gene duplication confers enhanced expression of 27-kDa ?-zein for endosperm modification in quality protein maize.

The maizeopaque2(o2) mutant has a high nutritional value but it develops a chalky endosperm that limits its practical use. Genetic selection foro2modifiers can convert the normally chalky endosperm of the mutant into a hard, vitreous phenotype, yielding what is known as quality protein maize (QPM). Previous studies have shown that enhanced expression of 27-kDa ?-zein in QPM is essential for endosperm modification. Taking advantage of genome-wide association study analysis of a natural population, linkage mapping analysis of a recombinant inbred line population, and map-based cloning, we identified a quantitative trait locus (q?27) affecting expression of 27-kDa ?-zein.q?27was mapped to the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing assists genome assembly improvement and structural variation inference.

Dear editor, The single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform presented by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) is regarded as a third-generation sequencing technology (Eid et al., 2009, Roberts et al., 2013). PacBio delivers long reads from several to tens of kilobases (kbs), which are ideal for filling unsequenced gaps due to unusual sequence contexts, such as high-GC content or repeat-rich regions (Bashir et al., 2012, Berlin et al., 2015, Chaisson et al., 2015). PacBio long reads are also favorable for detecting large DNA fragments harboring structural variations (SVs), such as inversions, translocations, duplications, and large insertions/deletions (indels) (Ritz et al., 2010, English et…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Understanding the genetics of APOE and TOMM40 and role of mitochondrial structure and function in clinical pharmacology of Alzheimer’s disease.

The methodology of Genome-Wide Association Screening (GWAS) has been applied for more than a decade. Translation to clinical utility has been limited, especially in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). It has become standard practice in the analyses of more than two dozen AD GWAS studies to exclude the apolipoprotein E (APOE) region because of its extraordinary statistical support, unique thus far in complex human diseases. New genes associated with AD are proposed frequently based on SNPs associated with odds ratio (OR) 

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Alpha-CENTAURI: assessing novel centromeric repeat sequence variation with long read sequencing.

Long arrays of near-identical tandem repeats are a common feature of centromeric and subtelomeric regions in complex genomes. These sequences present a source of repeat structure diversity that is commonly ignored by standard genomic tools. Unlike reads shorter than the underlying repeat structure that rely on indirect inference methods, e.g. assembly, long reads allow direct inference of satellite higher order repeat structure. To automate characterization of local centromeric tandem repeat sequence variation we have designed Alpha-CENTAURI (ALPHA satellite CENTromeric AUtomated Repeat Identification), that takes advantage of Pacific Bioscience long-reads from whole-genome sequencing datasets. By operating on reads prior to assembly,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Next-generation sequencing-based detection of germline L1-mediated transductions.

While active LINE-1 (L1) elements possess the ability to mobilize flanking sequences to different genomic loci through a process termed transduction influencing genomic content and structure, an approach for detecting polymorphic germline non-reference transductions in massively-parallel sequencing data has been lacking.Here we present the computational approach TIGER (Transduction Inference in GERmline genomes), enabling the discovery of non-reference L1-mediated transductions by combining L1 discovery with detection of unique insertion sequences and detailed characterization of insertion sites. We employed TIGER to characterize polymorphic transductions in fifteen genomes from non-human primate species (chimpanzee, orangutan and rhesus macaque), as well as in a human…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Population scale mapping of transposable element diversity reveals links to gene regulation and epigenomic variation.

Variation in the presence or absence of transposable elements (TEs) is a major source of genetic variation between individuals. Here, we identified 23,095 TE presence/absence variants between 216 Arabidopsis accessions. Most TE variants were rare, and we find these rare variants associated with local extremes of gene expression and DNA methylation levels within the population. Of the common alleles identified, two thirds were not in linkage disequilibrium with nearby SNPs, implicating these variants as a source of novel genetic diversity. Many common TE variants were associated with significantly altered expression of nearby genes, and a major fraction of inter-accession DNA…

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