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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Population scale mapping of transposable element diversity reveals links to gene regulation and epigenomic variation.

Variation in the presence or absence of transposable elements (TEs) is a major source of genetic variation between individuals. Here, we identified 23,095 TE presence/absence variants between 216 Arabidopsis accessions. Most TE variants were rare, and we find these rare variants associated with local extremes of gene expression and DNA methylation levels within the population. Of the common alleles identified, two thirds were not in linkage disequilibrium with nearby SNPs, implicating these variants as a source of novel genetic diversity. Many common TE variants were associated with significantly altered expression of nearby genes, and a major fraction of inter-accession DNA…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Microevolution of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during epidemic, United Kingdom, 2005-2010.

Microevolution associated with emergence and expansion of new epidemic clones of bacterial pathogens holds the key to epidemiologic success. To determine microevolution associated with monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during an epidemic, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis of isolates from the United Kingdom and Italy during 2005-2012. These isolates formed a single clade distinct from recent monophasic epidemic clones previously described from North America and Spain. The UK monophasic epidemic clones showed a novel genomic island encoding resistance to heavy metals and a composite transposon encoding antimicrobial drug resistance genes not present in other Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, which may…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A hot L1 retrotransposon evades somatic repression and initiates human colorectal cancer.

Although human LINE-1 (L1) elements are actively mobilized in many cancers, a role for somatic L1 retrotransposition in tumor initiation has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we identify a novel somatic L1 insertion in the APC tumor suppressor gene that provided us with a unique opportunity to determine whether such insertions can actually initiate colorectal cancer (CRC), and if so, how this might occur. Our data support a model whereby a hot L1 source element on Chromosome 17 of the patient’s genome evaded somatic repression in normal colon tissues and thereby initiated CRC by mutating the APC gene. This insertion…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials.

The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Structural and functional analysis of the finished genome of the recently isolated toxic Anabaena sp. WA102.

Very few closed genomes of the cyanobacteria that commonly produce toxic blooms in lakes and reservoirs are available, limiting our understanding of the properties of these organisms. A new anatoxin-a-producing member of the Nostocaceae, Anabaena sp. WA102, was isolated from a freshwater lake in Washington State, USA, in 2013 and maintained in non-axenic culture.The Anabaena sp. WA102 5.7 Mbp genome assembly has been closed with long-read, single-molecule sequencing and separately a draft genome assembly has been produced with short-read sequencing technology. The closed and draft genome assemblies are compared, showing a correlation between long repeats in the genome and the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

1,135 genomes reveal the global pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Arabidopsis thaliana serves as a model organism for the study of fundamental physiological, cellular, and molecular processes. It has also greatly advanced our understanding of intraspecific genome variation. We present a detailed map of variation in 1,135 high-quality re-sequenced natural inbred lines representing the native Eurasian and North African range and recently colonized North America. We identify relict populations that continue to inhabit ancestral habitats, primarily in the Iberian Peninsula. They have mixed with a lineage that has spread to northern latitudes from an unknown glacial refugium and is now found in a much broader spectrum of habitats. Insights into…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Structural variation detection using next-generation sequencing data: A comparative technical review.

Structural variations (SVs) are mutations in the genome of size at least fifty nucleotides. They contribute to the phenotypic differences among healthy individuals, cause severe diseases and even cancers by breaking or linking genes. Thus, it is crucial to systematically profile SVs in the genome. In the past decade, many next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based SV detection methods have been proposed due to the significant cost reduction of NGS experiments and their ability to unbiasedly detect SVs to the base-pair resolution. These SV detection methods vary in both sensitivity and specificity, since they use different SV-property-dependent and library-property-dependent features. As a result,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The two chromosomes of the mitochondrial genome of a sugarcane cultivar: assembly and recombination analysis using long PacBio reads.

Sugarcane accounts for a large portion of the worlds sugar production. Modern commercial cultivars are complex hybrids of S. officinarum and several other Saccharum species. Historical records identify New Guinea as the origin of S. officinarum and that a small number of plants originating from there were used to generate all modern commercial cultivars. The mitochondrial genome can be a useful way to identify the maternal origin of commercial cultivars. We have used the PacBio RSII to sequence and assemble the mitochondrial genome of a South East Asian commercial cultivar, known as Khon Kaen 3. The long read length of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assemblytics: a web analytics tool for the detection of variants from an assembly.

Assemblytics is a web app for detecting and analyzing variants from a de novo genome assembly aligned to a reference genome. It incorporates a unique anchor filtering approach to increase robustness to repetitive elements, and identifies six classes of variants based on their distinct alignment signatures. Assemblytics can be applied both to comparing aberrant genomes, such as human cancers, to a reference, or to identify differences between related species. Multiple interactive visualizations enable in-depth explorations of the genomic distributions of variants.http://assemblytics.com, https://github.com/marianattestad/assemblytics CONTACT: mnattest@cshl.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Short tandem repeat number estimation from paired-end reads for multiple individuals by considering coalescent tree.

Two types of approaches are mainly considered for the repeat number estimation in short tandem repeat (STR) regions from high-throughput sequencing data: approaches directly counting repeat patterns included in sequence reads spanning the region and approaches based on detecting the difference between the insert size inferred from aligned paired-end reads and the actual insert size. Although the accuracy of repeat numbers estimated with the former approaches is high, the size of target STR regions is limited to the length of sequence reads. On the other hand, the latter approaches can handle STR regions longer than the length of sequence reads.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Hyper-eccentric structural genes in the mitochondrial genome of the algal parasite Hemistasia phaeocysticola.

Diplonemid mitochondria are considered to have very eccentric structural genes. Coding regions of individual diplonemid mitochondrial genes are fragmented into small pieces and found on different circular DNAs. Short RNAs transcribed from each DNA molecule mature through a unique RNA maturation process involving assembly and three types of RNA editing (i.e., U insertion and A-to-I & C-to-U substitutions), although the molecular mechanism(s) of RNA maturation and the evolutionary history of these eccentric structural genes still remain to be understood. Since the gene fragmentation pattern is generally conserved among the diplonemid species studied to date, it was considered that their structural…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Effector diversification contributes to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae phenotypic adaptation in a semi-isolated environment.

Understanding the processes that shaped contemporary pathogen populations in agricultural landscapes is quite important to define appropriate management strategies and to support crop improvement efforts. Here, we took advantage of an historical record to examine the adaptation pathway of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in a semi-isolated environment represented in the Philippine archipelago. By comparing genomes of key Xoo groups we showed that modern populations derived from three Asian lineages. We also showed that diversification of virulence factors occurred within each lineage, most likely driven by host adaptation, and it was essential to shape contemporary pathogen races.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A viral immunity chromosome in the marine picoeukaryote, Ostreococcus tauri.

Micro-algae of the genus Ostreococcus and related species of the order Mamiellales are globally distributed in the photic zone of world’s oceans where they contribute to fixation of atmospheric carbon and production of oxygen, besides providing a primary source of nutrition in the food web. Their tiny size, simple cells, ease of culture, compact genomes and susceptibility to the most abundant large DNA viruses in the sea render them attractive as models for integrative marine biology. In culture, spontaneous resistance to viruses occurs frequently. Here, we show that virus-producing resistant cell lines arise in many independent cell lines during lytic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete circular genome sequence of successful ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OC8) in Russia: one-megabase genomic inversion, IS256’s spread, and evolution of Russia ST8-IV.

ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN) and vSaß split. The behavior of IS256 was flexible: its insertion site (att) sequences on the genome and junction sequences of extrachromosomal circular DNA were all…

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