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October 1, 2017

Genetic control of plasticity of oil yield for combined abiotic stresses using a joint approach of crop modelling and genome-wide association.

Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting and managing climate change effects on wild plants and crops. Here, we combined crop modelling and quantitative genetics to study the genetic control of oil yield plasticity for multiple abiotic stresses in sunflower. First, we developed stress indicators to characterize 14 environments for three abiotic stresses (cold, drought and nitrogen) using the SUNFLO crop model and phenotypic variations of three commercial varieties. The computed plant stress indicators better explain yield variation than descriptors at the climatic or crop levels. In those environments, we observed oil yield of 317 sunflower…

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July 1, 2017

Plant growth-promoting effect and genomic analysis of the beneficial endophyte Streptomyces sp. KLBMP 5084 isolated from halophyte Limonium sinense

Background and aims: Soil salinity is a worldwide environmental problem that can hinder plant development and therefore negatively impact crop production. Inoculation of halophytic plants with plant growth-promoting (PGP) actinobacteria has been suggested as one strategy to improve salt tolerance. Here we performed a glasshouse experiment to test the effect of a PGP halotolerant endophytic actinomycete strain, KLBMP 5084 on the performance of the halophyte Limonium sinense under conditions of salt stress. Methods: Strain KLBMP 5084 was identified and screened for multiple PGP traits. The complete genome of strain KLBMP 5084 was sequenced and analyzed. L. sinense control seedlings (no…

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May 10, 2017

A comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in paleopolyploid maize.

Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing (AS) enables our understanding of the biological role of transcript isoform diversity. This study describes the use of publicly available RNA-Seq data to identify and characterize the global diversity of AS isoforms in maize using the inbred lines B73 and Mo17, and a related species, sorghum. Identification and characterization of AS within maize tissues revealed that genes expressed in seed exhibit the largest differential AS relative to other tissues examined. Additionally, differences in AS between the two genotypes B73 and Mo17 are greatest within genes expressed in seed. We demonstrate that changes in the level…

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February 21, 2017

Identification of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 DNA methyltransferase, its targets, and physiological roles.

DNA methylation is widespread among prokaryotes, and most DNA methylation reactions are catalyzed by adenine DNA methyltransferases, which are part of restriction-modification (R-M) systems. R-M systems are known for their role in the defense against foreign DNA; however, DNA methyltransferases also play functional roles in gene regulation. In this study, we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to uncover the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We identified a conserved sequence motif targeted by an adenine methyltransferase of a type I R-M system and quantified the presence of N(6)-methyladenine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Changes…

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December 1, 2016

Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we…

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October 26, 2016

MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry enables a comprehensive and fast analysis of dynamics and qualities of stress responses of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures in the manufacture of foods. Upon preparation, these cultures undergo various stresses resulting in losses of survival and fitness. In order to find conditions for the subsequent identification of proteomic biomarkers and their exploitation for preconditioning of strains, we subjected Lactobacillus (Lb.) paracasei subsp. paracasei TMW 1.1434 (F19) to different stress qualities (osmotic stress, oxidative stress, temperature stress, pH stress and starvation stress). We analysed the dynamics of its stress responses based on the expression of stress proteins using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS), which has so far been used for…

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June 1, 2016

Genome sequence and analysis of a stress-tolerant, wild-derived strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in biofuels research

The genome sequences of more than 100 strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been published. Unfortunately, most of these genome assemblies contain dozens to hundreds of gaps at repetitive sequences, including transposable elements, tRNAs, and subtelomeric regions, which is where novel genes generally reside. Relatively few strains have been chosen for genome sequencing based on their biofuel production potential, leaving an additional knowledge gap. Here, we describe the nearly complete genome sequence of GLBRCY22-3 (Y22-3), a strain of S. cerevisiae derived from the stress-tolerant wild strain NRRL YB-210 and subsequently engineered for xylose metabolism. After benchmarking several genome assembly…

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December 29, 2015

Evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer from the draft genome of a tardigrade.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), or the transfer of genes between species, has been recognized recently as more pervasive than previously suspected. Here, we report evidence for an unprecedented degree of HGT into an animal genome, based on a draft genome of a tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. Tardigrades are microscopic eight-legged animals that are famous for their ability to survive extreme conditions. Genome sequencing, direct confirmation of physical linkage, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that a large fraction of the H. dujardini genome is derived from diverse bacteria as well as plants, fungi, and Archaea. We estimate that approximately one-sixth of tardigrade genes…

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September 1, 2014

Comparative genome sequencing reveals genomic signature of extreme desiccation tolerance in the anhydrobiotic midge.

Anhydrobiosis represents an extreme example of tolerance adaptation to water loss, where an organism can survive in an ametabolic state until water returns. Here we report the first comparative analysis examining the genomic background of extreme desiccation tolerance, which is exclusively found in larvae of the only anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki. We compare the genomes of P. vanderplanki and a congeneric desiccation-sensitive midge P. nubifer. We determine that the genome of the anhydrobiotic species specifically contains clusters of multi-copy genes with products that act as molecular shields. In addition, the genome possesses several groups of genes with high similarity to…

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June 1, 2014

Stenotrophomonas comparative genomics reveals genes and functions that differentiate beneficial and pathogenic bacteria.

In recent years, the number of human infections caused by opportunistic pathogens has increased dramatically. Plant rhizospheres are one of the most typical natural reservoirs for these pathogens but they also represent a great source for beneficial microbes with potential for biotechnological applications. However, understanding the natural variation and possible differences between pathogens and beneficials is the main challenge in furthering these possibilities. The genus Stenotrophomonas contains representatives found to be associated with human and plant host.We used comparative genomics as well as transcriptomic and physiological approaches to detect significant borders between the Stenotrophomonas strains: the multi-drug resistant pathogenic S.…

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