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October 1, 2018

Genome plasticity of agr-defective Staphylococcus aureus during clinical infection.

Therapy for bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus is often ineffective, even when treatment conditions are optimal according to experimental protocols. Adapted subclones, such as those bearing mutations that attenuate agr-mediated virulence activation, are associated with persistent infection and patient mortality. To identify additional alterations in agr-defective mutants, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of clone pairs from colonizing and infected sites of several patients in whom S. aureus demonstrated a within-host loss of agr function. We report that events associated with agr inactivation result in agr-defective blood and nares strain pairs that are enriched in mutations compared to pairs…

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September 1, 2018

Prevalence and genomic structure of bacteriophage phi3 in human derived livestock-associated MRSA from 2000 to 2015.

Whereas the emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) in animal husbandry and its transmission to humans are well documented, less is known about factors driving the epidemic spread of this zoonotic lineage within the human population. One factor could be the bacteriophage phi3, which is rarely detected in S. aureus isolates from animals but commonly found among isolates from humans, including those of the human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) CC398 clade. The proportion of phi3-carrying MRSA spa-CC011 isolates, which constitute presumptively LA-MRSA within the multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 398, was systematically assessed for…

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August 1, 2018

Complete genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 612 isolate from an Australian horse.

Staphylococcus aureus is a serious pathogen of humans and animals. Multilocus sequence type 612 is dominant and highly virulent in South African hospitals but relatively uncommon elsewhere. We present the complete genome sequence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain SVH7513, isolated from a horse at a veterinary clinic in New South Wales, Australia.

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August 1, 2018

Complete genome sequences of Canadian epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains CMRSA3 and CMRSA6.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 8 (CC8) sequence type 239 (ST239) represents a predominant hospital-associated MRSA sublineage present worldwide. The Canadian epidemic MRSA strains CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 are moderately virulent members of this group but are closely related to the highly virulent strain TW20. Whole-genome sequencing of CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 was conducted to identify genetic determinants associated with their virulence.

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July 1, 2018

Whole-genome comparison of high and low virulent Staphylococcus aureus isolates inducing implant-associated bone infections.

Staphylococcus aureus can cause wide range of infections from simple soft skin infections to severe endocarditis, bacteremia, osteomyelitis and implant associated bone infections (IABI). The focus of the present investigation was to study virulence properties of S. aureus isolates from acute and chronic IABI by means of their in vivo lethality, in vitro osteoblasts invasion, biofilm formation and subsequently whole genome comparison between high and low virulent strains. Application of insect infection model Galleria mellonella revealed high, intermediate and low virulence phenotypes of these clinical isolates, which showed good correlation with osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation assays. Comparative genomics of…

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March 31, 2018

Draft genome sequence of lytic bacteriophage SA7 infecting Staphylococcus aureus isolates

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive and a round-shaped bacterium of Firmicutes phylum, and is a common cause of skin infections, respiratory infections, and food poisoning. Bacteriophages infecting S. aureus can be an effective treatment for S. aureus infections. Here, the draft genomic sequence is announced for a lytic bacteriophage SA7 infecting S. aureus isolates. The bacteriophage SA7 was isolated from a sewage water sample near a livestock farm in Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea. SA7 has a genome of 34,730 bp and 34.1% G + C content. The genome has 53 protein-coding genes, 23 of which have predicted functions from BLASTp analysis,…

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February 1, 2018

Plasmid-encoded transferable mecB-mediated methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

During cefoxitin-based nasal screening, phenotypically categorized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated and tested negative for the presence of the mecA and mecC genes as well as for the SCCmec-orfX junction region. The isolate was found to carry a mecB gene previously described for Macrococcus caseolyticus but not for staphylococcal species. The gene is flanked by ß-lactam regulatory genes similar to mecR, mecI, and blaZ and is part of an 84.6-kb multidrug-resistance plasmid that harbors genes encoding additional resistances to aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD, aphA, and aadK) as well as macrolides (ermB) and tetracyclines (tetS). This further plasmidborne ß-lactam resistance mechanism harbors…

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February 1, 2018

Topical antibiotic use coselects for the carriage of mobile genetic elements conferring resistance to unrelated antimicrobials in Staphylococcus aureus.

Topical antibiotics, such as mupirocin and fusidic acid, are commonly used in the prevention and treatment of skin infections, particularly those caused by staphylococci. However, the widespread use of these agents is associated with increased resistance to these agents, potentially limiting their efficacy. Of particular concern is the observation that resistance to topical antibiotics is often associated with multidrug resistance, suggesting that topical antibiotics may play a role in the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. New Zealand (NZ) has some of the highest globally recorded rates of topical antibiotic usage and resistance. Using a combination of Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time…

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January 24, 2018

Convergent evolution driven by rifampin exacerbates the global burden of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Mutations in the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RpoB) cause resistance to rifampin (Rifr), a critical antibiotic for treatment of multidrug-resistantStaphylococcus aureus.In vitrostudies have shown that RpoB mutations confer decreased susceptibility to other antibiotics, but the clinical relevance is unknown. Here, by analyzing 7,099S. aureusgenomes, we demonstrate that the most prevalent RpoB mutations promote clinically relevant phenotypic plasticity resulting in the emergence of stableS. aureuslineages, associated with increased risk of therapeutic failure through generation of small-colony variants (SCVs) and coresistance to last-line antimicrobial agents. We found eight RpoB mutations that accounted for 93% (469/505) of the total number of Rifrmutations. The most…

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November 8, 2017

Genomic comparison between Staphylococcus aureus GN strains clinically isolated from a familial infection case: IS1272 transposition through a novel inverted repeat-replacing mechanism.

A bacterial insertion sequence (IS) is a mobile DNA sequence carrying only the transposase gene (tnp) that acts as a mutator to disrupt genes, alter gene expressions, and cause genomic rearrangements. "Canonical" ISs have historically been characterized by their terminal inverted repeats (IRs), which may form a stem-loop structure, and duplications of a short (non-IR) target sequence at both ends, called target site duplications (TSDs). The IS distributions and virulence potentials of Staphylococcus aureus genomes in familial infection cases are unclear. Here, we determined the complete circular genome sequences of familial strains from a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive ST50/agr4 S. aureus…

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October 12, 2017

Complete genome sequence of super biofilm-elaborating Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Japan.

Staphylococcus aureus JP080, previously named TF2758, is a clinical isolate from an atheroma and a super biofilm-elaborating strain whose biofilm elaboration is dependent solely on polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine/polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PNAG/PIA). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain JP080, which consists of one chromosome and one circular plasmid. Copyright © 2017 Yu et al.

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September 1, 2017

Characterization of a PVL-negative community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain of sequence type 88 in China.

Sequence type 88 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain SR434, isolated from an outpatient with skin and soft tissue infection, was subjected to whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, mouse skin infection model and hemolysis analysis to identify its virulence and resistance determinants. MRSA strain SR434 is resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and fosfomycin. Four plasmids with resistance genes were identified in this strain, including a 20,658bp blaZ-carrying plasmid, a 2473bp ermC-carrying plasmid, a 2622bp fosB7-carrying plasmid (86% identity with plasmid in a ST2590 MRSA strain) and a 4817bp lnuA-carrying plasmid (99% identity with pLNU4 from bovine coagulase-nagetive Staphylococci). This strain…

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September 1, 2017

Next-generation sequence analysis reveals transfer of methicillin resistance to a methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strain that subsequently caused a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak: a descriptive study.

Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is caused primarily by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to be an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but has been rarely observed in real time. In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a health care worker (HCW) and three patients, all carrying a fusidic acid-resistant MRSA strain. The husband of the HCW was screened for MRSA carriage, but only a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, which was also…

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August 10, 2017

Complete genome sequence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398 isolated from swine in the United States.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes and causes disease in many animal species. Livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates are represented by isolates of the sequence type 398 (ST398). These isolates are considered to be livestock adapted. This report provides the complete genome sequence of one swine-associated LA-MRSA ST398 isolate from the United States.

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August 10, 2017

Complete genome sequence and annotation of the Staphylococcus aureus strain HG001.

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic Gram-positive pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections from minor skin abscesses to life-threatening diseases. Here, we report the draft genome assembly and current annotation of the HG001 strain, a derivative of the RN1 (NCT8325) strain with restored rbsU (a positive activator of SigB). Copyright © 2017 Caldelari et al.

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