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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Solanum demissum R8 late blight resistance gene is an Sw-5 homologue that has been deployed worldwide in late blight resistant varieties.

The potato late blight resistance gene R8 has been cloned. R8 is found in five late blight resistant varieties deployed in three different continents. R8 recognises Avr8 and is homologous to the NB-LRR protein Sw-5 from tomato. The broad spectrum late blight resistance gene R8 from Solanum demissum was cloned based on a previously published coarse map position on the lower arm of chromosome IX. Fine mapping in a recombinant population and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library screening resulted in a BAC contig spanning 170 kb of the R8 haplotype. Sequencing revealed a cluster of at least ten R gene analogues…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Escherichia coli harboring mcr-1 and blaCTX-M on a novel IncF plasmid: first report of mcr-1 in the United States.

The recent discovery of a plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, in China heralds the emergence of truly pan-drug-resistant bacteria (1). The gene has been found primarily in Escherichia coli but has also been identified in other members of the Enterobacteriaceae in human, animal, food, and environmental samples on every continent (2–5). In response to this threat, starting in May 2016, all extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli clinical isolates submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC) have been tested for resistance to colistin by Etest. Here we report the presence of mcr-1 in an…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First report of blaIMP-14 on a plasmid harboring multiple drug resistance genes in Escherichia coli ST131.

The blaIMP-14 carbapenem resistance gene has largely previously been observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. As part of global surveillance and sequencing of carbapenem-resistant E. coli, we identified an ST131 strain harboring blaIMP-14 within a class 1 integron, itself nested within a ~54kb multi-drug resistance region on an epidemic IncA/C2 plasmid. The emergence of blaIMP-14 in this context in the ST131 lineage is of potential clinical concern. Copyright © 2016 Stoesser et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recombination rate heterogeneity within Arabidopsis disease resistance genes.

Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Effector diversification contributes to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae phenotypic adaptation in a semi-isolated environment.

Understanding the processes that shaped contemporary pathogen populations in agricultural landscapes is quite important to define appropriate management strategies and to support crop improvement efforts. Here, we took advantage of an historical record to examine the adaptation pathway of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in a semi-isolated environment represented in the Philippine archipelago. By comparing genomes of key Xoo groups we showed that modern populations derived from three Asian lineages. We also showed that diversification of virulence factors occurred within each lineage, most likely driven by host adaptation, and it was essential to shape contemporary pathogen races.…

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