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March 1, 2019

Identification of Diverse Integron and Plasmid Structures Carrying a Novel Carbapenemase Among Pseudomonas Species.

A novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, called IMP-63, was identified in three clonally distinct strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two strains of Pseudomonas putida isolated within a 4 year timeframe in three French hospitals. The blaIMP-63 gene that encodes this carbapenemase turned out to be located in the variable region of four integrons (In1297, In1574, In1573, and In1572) and to coexist with novel or rare gene cassettes (fosM, gcu170, gcuF1) and insertion elements (ISPsp7v, ISPa16v). All these integrons except one (In1574) were flanked by a copy of insertion sequence ISPa17 next to the orf6 putative gene, and were carried by non-conjugative plasmids…

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February 1, 2019

Comparative Genome Analysis of an Extensively Drug-Resistant Isolate of Avian Sequence Type 167 Escherichia coli Strain Sanji with Novel In Silico Serotype O89b:H9.

Extensive drug resistance (XDR) is an escalating global problem. Escherichia coli strain Sanji was isolated from an outbreak of pheasant colibacillosis in Fujian province, China, in 2011. This strain has XDR properties, exhibiting sensitivity to carbapenems but no other classes of known antibiotics. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a total of 32 known antibiotic resistance genes, many associated with insertion sequence 26 (IS26) elements. These were found on the Sanji chromosome and 2 of its 6 plasmids, pSJ_255 and pSJ_82. The Sanji chromosome also harbors a type 2 secretion system (T2SS), a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), a type 6 secretion system…

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December 1, 2018

Phylogenetic barriers to horizontal transfer of antimicrobial peptide resistance genes in the human gut microbiota.

The human gut microbiota has adapted to the presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are ancient components of immune defence. Despite its medical importance, it has remained unclear whether AMP resistance genes in the gut microbiome are available for genetic exchange between bacterial species. Here, we show that AMP resistance and antibiotic resistance genes differ in their mobilization patterns and functional compatibilities with new bacterial hosts. First, whereas AMP resistance genes are widespread in the gut microbiome, their rate of horizontal transfer is lower than that of antibiotic resistance genes. Second, gut microbiota culturing and functional metagenomics have revealed that…

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December 1, 2018

Diverse vectors and mechanisms spread NDM beta-lactamases among carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the Greater Boston area.

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamases (NDMs) are an uncommon but emerging cause of carbapenem resistance in the United States. Genomic factors promoting their domestic spread remain poorly characterized. A prospective genomic surveillance program among Boston-area hospitals identified multiple new occurrences of NDM carrying strains of E. coli and E. cloacae complex in inpatient and outpatient settings, representing the first occurrences of NDM-mediated resistance since initiating genomic surveillance in 2011. Cases included domestic patients with no international exposures. PacBio sequencing of isolates identified strain characteristics, resistance genes, and the complement of mobile vectors mediating spread. Analyses revealed a common 3114-bp region containing the…

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November 5, 2018

Molecular characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus with a resistance plasmid.

The aim of this work was to investigate the molecular characterization of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus strain with a resistance plasmid.En. casseliflavus EC369 was isolated from a patient in a hospital in southern China. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found by means of the agar dilution method to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the strains. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis were performed to analyze the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal gene transfer of the resistance gene-related mobile genetic elements.En. casseliflavus EC369 showed resistance to erythromycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, but was susceptible to vancomycin, ampicillin, and streptothricin and…

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November 1, 2018

Detection of mcr-1 plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from human specimens: Comparison with those in Escherichia coli isolates from livestock in Korea.

The emerging mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, is an ongoing worldwide concern and an evaluation of clinical isolates harboring this gene is required in Korea. We investigated mcr-1-possessing Enterobacteriaceae among Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in Korea, and compared the genetic details of the plasmids with those in Escherichia coli isolates from livestock.Among 9,396 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2015, 1,347 (14.3%) strains were resistant to colistin and those were screened for mcr-1 by PCR. Colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by microdilution, and conjugal transfer of the mcr-1-harboring plasmids was assessed by direct mating. Whole genomes of three…

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November 1, 2018

Molecular epidemiology of isolates with multiple mcr plasmids from a pig farm in Great Britain: the effects of colistin withdrawal in the short and long term.

The environment, including farms, might act as a reservoir for mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes, which has led to calls for reduction of usage in livestock of colistin, an antibiotic of last resort for humans.To establish the molecular epidemiology of mcr Enterobacteriaceae from faeces of two cohorts of pigs, where one group had initially been treated with colistin and the other not, over a 5?month period following stoppage of colistin usage on a farm in Great Britain; faecal samples were also taken at ~20?months.mcr-1 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from positive faeces and was WGS performed; conjugation was performed on selected Escherichia…

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November 1, 2018

Characterization of an NDM-19-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain harboring 2 resistance plasmids from China.

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has become a major cause of nosocomial infections and posed challenges on clinical treatments. The main objective of this study was to determinate the genetic characteristics of the NDM-19-producing CRKP strain SCM96. From 2015 to 2017, 18 CRKP strains were recovered from sputum samples of patients in respiratory medicine in 6 hospitals from 5 provinces and cities in China. Polymerase chain reaction results for carbapenem resistance genes detection showed strain SCM96 carried blaNDM-19. Three types of transconjugants harboring different plasmids were selected by conjugation experiment. The Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was performed using the PacBio RS…

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October 1, 2018

Identification of the KPC plasmid pCT-KPC334: New insights on the evolutionary pathway of epidemic plasmids harboring fosA3-blaKPC-2 genes.

A novel, non-conjugative plasmid pKP1034 isolated from a fosfomycin-resistant, carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia strain KP1034 was recently reported to carry fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12 and rmtB genes, and was hypothesized to evolve from several recombination events of two closely related plasmids, pHN7A8 and pKPC-LK30 [1]. In this study, a plasmid pCT-KPC334 carrying fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1, and rmtB genes was identified, providing evidence on the evolutionary pathway of plasmids harboring fosA3-blaKPC-2 genes.

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October 1, 2018

Dissemination and persistence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance encoding IncI1-blaCTXM-1 plasmid among Escherichia coli in pigs.

This study investigated the ecology, epidemiology and plasmid characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant E. coli in healthy pigs over a period of 4 years (2013-2016) following the withdrawal of ESCs. High carriage rates of ESC-resistant E. coli were demonstrated in 2013 (86.6%) and 2014 (83.3%), compared to 2015 (22%) and 2016 (8.5%). ESC resistance identified among E. coli isolates was attributed to the carriage of an IncI1 ST-3 plasmid (pCTXM1-MU2) encoding blaCTXM-1. Genomic characterisation of selected E. coli isolates (n?=?61) identified plasmid movement into multiple commensal E. coli (n?=?22 STs). Major STs included ST10, ST5440, ST453, ST2514 and ST23. A…

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October 1, 2018

PacBio genome sequences of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7, diffusely adherent E. coli, and Salmonella enterica strains, all carrying plasmids with an mcr-1 resistance gene.

We report here Illumina-corrected PacBio whole-genome sequences of an Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain (2017C-4109), an E. coli serotype O[undetermined]:H2 strain (2017C-4173W12), and a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis strain (2017K-0021), all of which carried the mcr-1 resistance gene on an IncI2 or IncX4 plasmid. We also determined that pMCR-1-CTSe is identical to a previously published plasmid, pMCR-1-CT.

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October 1, 2018

Comparative analysis of blaKPC-2- and rmtB-carrying IncFII-family pKPC-LK30/pHN7A8 hybrid plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae CG258 strains disseminated among multiple Chinese hospitals.

We recently reported the complete sequence of a blaKPC-2- and rmtB-carrying IncFII-family plasmid p675920-1 with the pKPC-LK30/pHN7A8 hybrid structure. Comparative genomics of additional sequenced plasmids with similar hybrid structures and their prevalence in blaKPC-carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from China were investigated in this follow-up study.A total of 51 blaKPC-carrying K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from 2012 to 2016 from five Chinese hospitals and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. The blaKPC-carrying plasmids from four representative strains were sequenced and compared with p675920-1 and pCT-KPC. Plasmid transfer, carbapenemase activity determination, and bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed to characterize resistance phenotypes mediated…

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October 1, 2018

One Health genomic surveillance of Escherichia coli demonstrates distinct lineages and mobile genetic elements in isolates from humans versus livestock

Livestock have been proposed as a reservoir for drug-resistant Escherichia coli that infect humans. We isolated and sequenced 431 E. coli (including 155 ESBL-producing isolates) from cross-sectional surveys of livestock farms and retail meat in the East of England. These were compared with the genomes of 1517 E. coli associated with bloodstream infection in the United Kingdom. Phylogenetic core genome comparisons demonstrated that livestock and patient isolates were genetically distinct, indicating that E. coli causing serious human infection do not directly originate from livestock. By contrast, we observed highly related isolates from the same animal species on different farms. Analysis…

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September 1, 2018

A novel bacteriocin BMP11 and its antibacterial mechanism on cell envelope of Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii

Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii are notorious pathogens involved in numerous foodborne outbreaks after ingested contaminated food. Bacteriocins are natural food preservatives, some of which have antimicrobial activity comparable with antibiotics. In this study, a plasmid encoded novel bacteriocin BMP11 produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 was innovatively identified by combining complete genome and LC-MS/MS. The BMP11 was found to have rich a-helix conformation after prediction. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of BMP11 was verified after its heterologous expression in E. coli with 1280 and 640 AU/mL against L. monocytogenes and C. sakazakii, respectively. After purification by anion-exchange chromatography and HPLC, BMP11…

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September 1, 2018

Characterization of a novel SXT/R391 Integrative and Conjugative Element carrying cfr, blaCTX-M-65, fosA3 and aac(6′)-Ib-cr in Proteus mirabilis.

A novel 139,487-bp SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative element, ICEPmiChnBCP11, was characterized in Proteus mirabilis of swine origin in China. ICEPmiChnBCP11 harbors 20 different antimicrobial resistance genes, including the clinically important rRNA methyltransferase gene cfr, the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-65, fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3, and fluoroquinolone resistance gene aac(6')-Ib-cr An ISPpu12-mediated composite transposon containing various resistance genes and 10 copies of IS26 is inserted in hot spot 4. ICEPmiChnBCP11 was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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