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June 1, 2019

Whole genome sequencing used in an industrial context reveals a Salmonella laboratory cross-contamination.

In 2013, during a routine laboratory analysis performed on food samples, one finished product from a European factory was tested positive for Salmonella Hadar. At the same period, one environmental isolate in the same laboratory was serotyped Salmonella Hadar. Prior to this event, the laboratory performed a proficiency testing involving a sample spiked with NCTC 9877 Salmonella Hadar. The concomitance of Salmonella Hadar detection led to the suspicion of a laboratory cross-contamination between the Salmonella Hadar isolate used in the laboratory proficiency testing and the Salmonella Hadar isolate found on the finished product by the same laboratory. Since the classical…

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May 1, 2019

Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison

To better understand the subspecies origin of antibody genes in classical inbred mouse strains, the IGH gene loci of four wild-derived mouse strains were explored by analysis of VDJ gene rearrangements. A total of 341 unique IGHV gene sequences were inferred in the wild-derived strains, including 247 sequences that have not previously been reported. The genes of the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) strain were also documented, and all but one of the 84 inferred NOD IGHV genes have previously been observed in C57BL/6 mice. This is surprising because the Swiss mouse-derived NOD strain and the C57BL/6 strain have no known shared…

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April 1, 2019

Massive Changes of Genome Size Driven by Expansions of Non-autonomous Transposable Elements.

In eukaryotes, genome size correlates little with the number of coding genes or the level of organismal complexity (C-value paradox). The underlying causes of variations in genome size, whether adaptive or neutral, remain unclear, although several biological traits often covary with it [1-5]. Rapid increases in genome size occur mainly through whole-genome duplications or bursts in the activity of transposable elements (TEs) [6]. The very small and compact genome of Oikopleura dioica, a tunicate of the larvacean class, lacks elements of most ancient families of animal retrotransposons [7, 8]. Here, we sequenced the genomes of six other larvaceans, all of…

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April 1, 2019

High quality reference genomes for toxigenic and non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139.

Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae of the O139 serogroup have been responsible for several large cholera epidemics in South Asia, and continue to be of clinical and historical significance today. This serogroup was initially feared to represent a new, emerging V. cholerae clone that would lead to an eighth cholera pandemic. However, these concerns were ultimately unfounded. The majority of clinically relevant V. cholerae O139 isolates are closely related to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor V. cholerae, and comprise a single sublineage of the seventh pandemic El Tor lineage. Although related, these V. cholerae serogroups differ in several fundamental ways, in terms…

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April 1, 2019

A high-quality apple genome assembly reveals the association of a retrotransposon and red fruit colour.

A complete and accurate genome sequence provides a fundamental tool for functional genomics and DNA-informed breeding. Here, we assemble a high-quality genome (contig N50 of 6.99?Mb) of the apple anther-derived homozygous line HFTH1, including 22 telomere sequences, using a combination of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) sequencing, and optical mapping. In comparison to the Golden Delicious reference genome, we identify 18,047 deletions, 12,101 insertions and 14 large inversions. We reveal that these extensive genomic variations are largely attributable to activity of transposable elements. Interestingly, we find that a long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon insertion upstream of…

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April 1, 2019

A study of the extraordinarily strong and tough silk produced by bagworms.

Global ecological damage has heightened the demand for silk as 'a structural material made from sustainable resources'. Scientists have earnestly searched for stronger and tougher silks. Bagworm silk might be a promising candidate considering its superior capacity to dangle a heavy weight, summed up by the weights of the larva and its house. However, detailed mechanical and structural studies on bagworm silks have been lacking. Herein, we show the superior potential of the silk produced by Japan's largest bagworm, Eumeta variegata. This bagworm silk is extraordinarily strong and tough, and its tensile deformation behaviour is quite elastic. The outstanding mechanical…

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April 1, 2019

Improving the sensitivity of long read overlap detection using grouped short k-mer matches.

Single-molecule, real-time sequencing (SMRT) developed by Pacific BioSciences produces longer reads than second-generation sequencing technologies such as Illumina. The increased read length enables PacBio sequencing to close gaps in genome assembly, reveal structural variations, and characterize the intra-species variations. It also holds the promise to decipher the community structure in complex microbial communities because long reads help metagenomic assembly. One key step in genome assembly using long reads is to quickly identify reads forming overlaps. Because PacBio data has higher sequencing error rate and lower coverage than popular short read sequencing technologies (such as Illumina), efficient detection of true overlaps…

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April 1, 2019

Genome Sequence of a California Isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Race 3, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Tomato.

Fusarium wilt of tomato, caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is an increasingly important disease of tomato. This paper reports the high-quality draft genome assembly of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate D11 (race 3), which consists of 39 scaffolds with 57,281,978?bp (GC content, 47.5%), an N50 of 4,408,267?bp, a mean read coverage of 99.8×, and 17,682 predicted genes. Copyright © 2019 Henry et al.

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April 1, 2019

Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi,” a Novel Tick-Associated Bacterium Distributed in Colombia.

This is the first report of the genome sequence of "Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi" strain Adcor 2, deposited in DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number RAQN00000000 The draft genome showed 36.01% similarity with that of Rickettsia monacensis strain IrR/Munich (NCBI accession number LN794217), 37.81% similarity with that of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis 054 (NCBI accession number CP002912), and 43.88% similarity with that of Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 (NCBI accession number CCMG01000001). Copyright © 2019 Miranda et al.

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April 1, 2019

Insight into the microbial world of Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex and its relationships with its host.

The 37 currently recognized Bemisia tabaci cryptic species are economically important species and contain both primary and secondary endosymbionts, but their diversity has never been mapped systematically across the group. To achieve this, PacBio sequencing of full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons was carried out on 21 globally collected species in the B. tabaci complex, and two samples from B. afer were used here as outgroups. The microbial diversity was first explored across the major lineages of the whole group and 15 new putative bacterial sequences were observed. Extensive comparison of our results with previous endosymbiont diversity surveys which used…

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April 1, 2019

A draft nuclear-genome assembly of the acoel flatworm Praesagittifera naikaiensis.

Acoels are primitive bilaterians with very simple soft bodies, in which many organs, including the gut, are not developed. They provide platforms for studying molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the formation of the basic bilaterian body plan, whole-body regeneration, and symbiosis with photosynthetic microalgae. Because genomic information is essential for future research on acoel biology, we sequenced and assembled the nuclear genome of an acoel, Praesagittifera naikaiensis.To avoid sequence contamination derived from symbiotic microalgae, DNA was extracted from embryos that were free of algae. More than 290x sequencing coverage was achieved using a combination of Illumina (paired-end and mate-pair…

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April 1, 2019

Agricultural origins of a highly-persistent lineage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in New Zealand.

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are human and animal gut commensals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important opportunistic pathogens with limited treatment options. Historically, the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and avoparcin selected for the emergence of vancomycin resistance in human and animal isolates respectively, resulting in global cessation of avoparcin use between 1997 and 2000. To better understand human and animal-associated VRE strains in the post-avoparcin era, we sequenced the genomes of 231 VRE isolates from New Zealand (NZ) (75 human clinical, 156 poultry) cultured between 1998 and 2009. E. faecium lineages and their antibiotic resistance carriage patterns strictly delineated between agricultural…

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April 1, 2019

Genomic Islands in the Full-Genome Sequence of an NAD-Hemin-Independent Avibacterium paragallinarum Strain Isolated from Peru.

Here, we report the full-genome sequence of an NAD-hemin-independent Avibacterium paragallinarum serovar C-2 strain, FARPER-174, isolated from layer hens in Peru. This genome contained 12 potential genomic islands that include ribosomal protein-coding genes, a nadR gene, hemocin-coding genes, sequences of fagos, an rtx operon, and drug resistance genes. Copyright © 2019 Tataje-Lavanda et al.

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April 1, 2019

Complete Genome Sequence of Achromobacter spanius UQ283, a Soilborne Isolate Exhibiting Plant Growth-Promoting Properties.

Achromobacter spanius UQ283 is a soilborne bacterium found to exhibit plant growth-promoting and disease-suppressing attributes in several plant species. Accordingly, we used long-read sequencing to determine its complete genome sequence. The assembled genome will aid in understanding the multifaceted interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, pathogens, and plants. Copyright © 2019 Wass et al.

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April 1, 2019

Differences in resource use lead to coexistence of seed-transmitted microbial populations.

Seeds are involved in the vertical transmission of microorganisms in plants and act as reservoirs for the plant microbiome. They could serve as carriers of pathogens, making the study of microbial interactions on seeds important in the emergence of plant diseases. We studied the influence of biological disturbances caused by seed transmission of two phytopathogenic agents, Alternaria brassicicola Abra43 (Abra43) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc8004), on the structure and function of radish seed microbial assemblages, as well as the nutritional overlap between Xcc8004 and the seed microbiome, to find seed microbial residents capable of outcompeting this pathogen. According…

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