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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Expression and purification of the modification-dependent restriction enzyme BisI and its homologous enzymes.

The methylation-dependent restriction endonuclease (REase) BisI (G(m5)C???NGC) is found in Bacillus subtilis T30. We expressed and purified the BisI endonuclease and 34 BisI homologs identified in bacterial genomes. 23 of these BisI homologs are active based on digestion of (m5)C-modified substrates. Two major specificities were found among these BisI family enzymes: Group I enzymes cut GCNGC containing two to four (m5)C in the two strands, or hemi-methylated sites containing two (m5)C in one strand; Group II enzymes only cut GCNGC sites containing three to four (m5)C, while one enzyme requires all four cytosines to be modified for cleavage. Another homolog,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recombination rate heterogeneity within Arabidopsis disease resistance genes.

Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole genomic sequence analysis of Bacillus infantis: defining the genetic blueprint of strain NRRL B-14911, an emerging cardiopathogenic microbe.

We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we propose that this organism belongs to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative methylome analysis of the occasional ruminant respiratory pathogen Bibersteinia trehalosi.

We examined and compared both the methylomes and the modification-related gene content of four sequenced strains of Bibersteinia trehalosi isolated from the nasopharyngeal tracts of Nebraska cattle with symptoms of bovine respiratory disease complex. The methylation patterns and the encoded DNA methyltransferase (MTase) gene sets were different between each strain, with the only common pattern being that of Dam (GATC). Among the observed patterns were three novel motifs attributable to Type I restriction-modification systems. In some cases the differences in methylation patterns corresponded to the gain or loss of MTase genes, or to recombination at target recognition domains that resulted…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

‘Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga’, an uncultivated electroautotroph from a biocathode enrichment.

Biocathode communities are of interest for a variety of applications, including electrosynthesis, bioremediation, and biosensors, yet much remains to be understood about the biological processes that occur to enable these communities to grow. One major difficulty in understanding these communities is that the critical autotrophic organisms are difficult to cultivate. An uncultivated, electroautotrophic bacterium previously identified as an uncultivated member of the family Chromatiaceae appears to be a key organism in an autotrophic biocathode microbial community. Metagenomic, metaproteomic and metatranscriptomic characterization of this community indicates that there is likely a single organism that utilizes electrons from the cathode to fix…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Novel m4C modification in type I restriction-modification systems.

We identify a new subgroup of Type I Restriction-Modification enzymes that modify cytosine in one DNA strand and adenine in the opposite strand for host protection. Recognition specificity has been determined for ten systems using SMRT sequencing and each recognizes a novel DNA sequence motif. Previously characterized Type I systems use two identical copies of a single methyltransferase (MTase) subunit, with one bound at each half site of the specificity (S) subunit to form the MTase. The new m4C-producing Type I systems we describe have two separate yet highly similar MTase subunits that form a heterodimeric M1M2S MTase. The MTase…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of the thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium, Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108, provide a new insight into thermotolerance.

Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108 is a typical thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium. In this study, the complete genome sequence of the SKU1108 strain was elucidated, and information on genomic modifications due to the thermal adaptation of SKU1108 was updated. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the genetic background responsible for thermotolerance, the SKU1108 genome was compared with those of two closely related complete genome strains, thermotolerant A. pasteurianus 386B and mesophilic A. pasteurianus NBRC 3283. All 24 “thermotolerant genes” required for growth at higher temperatures in the thermotolerant Acetobacter tropicalis SKU1100 strain were conserved in all three strains. However, these…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Novel methyltransferase recognition motif identified in Chania multitudinisentens RB-25(T) gen. nov., sp. nov.

DNA methylation, defined by the addition of a methyl group to adenine or cytosine bases in DNA catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (MTases), is one of the most studied post-replicative DNA modification mechanism in bacteria (Roberts et al., 2003b). The three forms of nucleotide methylation identified to date are: N6-methyladenine(m6A), N4-methylcytosine (m4C), and 5-methylcytosine (m5C) (Gromova and Khoroshaev, 2003).

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic analyses of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 resequenced by single-molecule real-time sequencing.

As a third-generation sequencing (TGS) method, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology provides long read length, and it is well suited for resequencing projects and de novo assembly. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 was characterized and resequenced using SMRT technology. PA1 was also subjected to genomic, comparative and pan-genomic analyses. The multidrug resistant strain PA1 possesses a 6,498,072 bp genome and a sequence type of ST-782. The genome of PA1 was also visualized, and the results revealed the details of general genome annotations, virulence factors, regulatory proteins (RPs), secretion system proteins, type II toxin-antitoxin (T-A) pairs and genomic islands. Whole genome comparison analysis…

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