August 19, 2021  |  

Technical Note: Preparing DNA for PacBio HiFi sequencing – Extraction and quality control

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing uses the natural process of DNA replication to sequence long fragments of native DNA in order to produce highly accurate long reads, or HiFi reads. As such, starting with high-quality, high molecular weight (HMW) genomic DNA (gDNA) will result in longer libraries and better performance during sequencing. This technical note is intended to give recommendations, tips and tricks for the extraction of DNA, as well as assessing and preserving the quality and size of your DNA sample to be used for HiFi sequencing.

August 19, 2021  |  

Technical Note: Preparing samples for PacBio whole genome sequencing for de novo assembly – Collection and storage

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing uses the natural process of DNA replication to sequence long fragments of native DNA. As such, starting with high-quality, high molecular weight (HMW) genomic DNA (gDNA) will result in better sequencing performance across difficult to sequence regions of the genome. To obtain the highest quality, long DNA it is important to start with sample types compatible with HMW DNA extraction methods. This technical note is intended to give general guidance on sample collection, preparation, and storage across a range of commonly encountered sample types used for SMRT Sequencing whole genome projects. It is important to note that all samples and projects are unique and may not be comprehensively addressed in this document.

September 22, 2019  |  

Robust and effective methodologies for cryopreservation and DNA extraction from anaerobic gut fungi.

Cell storage and DNA isolation are essential to developing an expanded suite of microorganisms for biotechnology. However, many features of non-model microbes, such as an anaerobic lifestyle and rigid cell wall, present formidable challenges to creating strain repositories and extracting high quality genomic DNA. Here, we establish accessible, high efficiency, and robust techniques to store lignocellulolytic anaerobic gut fungi long term without specialized equipment. Using glycerol as a cryoprotectant, gut fungal isolates were preserved for a minimum of 23 months at -80 °C. Unlike previously reported approaches, this improved protocol is non-toxic and rapid, with samples surviving twice as long with negligible growth impact. Genomic DNA extraction for these isolates was optimized to yield samples compatible with next generation sequencing platforms (e.g. Illumina, PacBio). Popular DNA isolation kits and precipitation protocols yielded preps that were unsuitable for sequencing due to carbohydrate contaminants from the chitin-rich cell wall and extensive energy reserves of gut fungi. To address this, we identified a proprietary method optimized for hardy plant samples that rapidly yielded DNA fragments in excess of 10 kb with minimal RNA, protein or carbohydrate contamination. Collectively, these techniques serve as fundamental tools to manipulate powerful biomass-degrading gut fungi and improve their accessibility among researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

September 22, 2019  |  

Protocol: a versatile, inexpensive, high-throughput plant genomic DNA extraction method suitable for genotyping-by-sequencing.

The recent development of next-generation sequencing DNA marker technologies, such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), generates thousands of informative single nucleotide polymorphism markers in almost any species, regardless of genomic resources. This enables poorly resourced or “orphan” crops/species access to high-density, high-throughput marker platforms which have revolutionised population genetics studies and plant breeding. DNA quality underpins success of GBS methods as the DNA must be amenable to restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. A barrier to implementing GBS technologies is access to inexpensive, high-throughput extraction methods that yield sequencing-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) from plants. Several high-throughput DNA extraction methods are available, but typically provide low yield or poor quality gDNA, or are costly (US$6-$9/sample) for consumables.We modified a non-organic solvent protocol to extract microgram quantities (1-13 µg) of sequencing-quality high molecular weight gDNA inexpensively in 96-well plates from either fresh, freeze-dried or silica gel-dried plant tissue. The protocol was effective for several easy and difficult-to-extract forage, crop, horticultural and common model species including Trifolium, Medicago, Lolium, Secale, Festuca, Malus, Oryza, and Arabidopsis. The extracted DNA was of high molecular weight and digested readily with restriction enzymes. Contrasting with other extraction protocols we assessed, Illumina-based sequencing of GBS libraries developed from this gDNA had very uniform high quality base-calls to the end of sequence reads. Furthermore, DNA extracted using this method has been sequenced successfully with the PacBio long-read platform. The protocol is scalable, readily automated without requirement for fume hoods, requires approximately three hours to process 192 samples (384-576 samples/day), and is inexpensive at US$0.62/sample for consumables.This versatile, scalable and simple protocol yields high molecular weight genomic DNA suitable for restriction enzyme digestion and next-generation sequencing applications including GBS and long-read sequencing platforms such as PacBio. The low cost, high-throughput, and extraction of high quality gDNA from a range of fresh and dried source plant material makes this method suitable for many sequencing and genotyping applications including large-scale sample screening underpinning breeding programmes.

September 22, 2019  |  

Fast and inexpensive protocols for consistent extraction of high quality DNA and RNA from challenging plant and fungal samples for high-throughput SNP genotyping and sequencing applications.

Modern genotyping techniques, such as SNP analysis and genotyping by sequencing (GBS), are hampered by poor DNA quality and purity, particularly in challenging plant species, rich in secondary metabolites. We therefore investigated the utility of a pre-wash step using a buffered sorbitol solution, prior to DNA extraction using a high salt CTAB extraction protocol, in a high throughput or miniprep setting. This pre-wash appears to remove interfering metabolites, such as polyphenols and polysaccharides, from tissue macerates. We also investigated the adaptability of the sorbitol pre-wash for RNA extraction using a lithium chloride-based protocol. The method was successfully applied to a variety of tissues, including leaf, cambium and fruit of diverse plant species including annual crops, forest and fruit trees, herbarium leaf material and lyophilized fungal mycelium. We consistently obtained good yields of high purity DNA or RNA in all species tested. The protocol has been validated for thousands of DNA samples by generating high data quality in dense SNP arrays. DNA extracted from Eucalyptus spp. leaf and cambium as well as mycelium from Trichoderma spp. was readily digested with restriction enzymes and performed consistently in AFLP assays. Scaled-up DNA extractions were also suitable for long read sequencing. Successful RNA quality control and good RNA-Seq data for Eucalyptus and cashew confirms the effectiveness of the sorbitol buffer pre-wash for high quality RNA extraction.

September 22, 2019  |  

Improved nucleic acid extraction protocols for Ganoderma boninense, G. miniatocinctum and G. tornatum.

The first and most crucial step of all molecular techniques is to isolate high quality and intact nucleic acids. However, DNA and RNA isolation from fungal samples are usually difficult due to the cell walls that are relatively unsusceptible to lysis and often resistant to traditional extraction procedures. Although there are many extraction protocols for Ganoderma species, different extraction protocols have been applied to different species to obtain high yields of good quality nucleic acids, especially for genome and transcriptome sequencing. Ganoderma species, mainly G. boninense causes the basal stem rot disease, a devastating disease that plagues the oil palm industry. Here, we describe modified DNA extraction protocols for G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum and G. tornatum, and an RNA extraction protocol for G. boninense. The modified salting out DNA extraction protocol is suitable for G. boninense and G. miniatocinctum while the modified high salt and low pH protocol is suitable for G. tornatum. The modified DNA and RNA extraction protocols were able to produce high quality genomic DNA and total RNA of?~?140 to 160 µg/g and?~?80 µg/g of mycelia respectively, for Single Molecule Real Time (PacBio Sequel® System) and Illumina sequencing. These protocols will benefit those studying the oil palm pathogens at nucleotide level.

July 19, 2019  |  

Extraction of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA for long-read sequencing of single molecules.

De novo sequencing of complex genomes is one of the main challenges for researchers seeking high-quality reference sequences. Many de novo assemblies are based on short reads, producing fragmented genome sequences. Third-generation sequencing, with read lengths >10 kb, will improve the assembly of complex genomes, but these techniques require high-molecular-weight genomic DNA (gDNA), and gDNA extraction protocols used for obtaining smaller fragments for short-read sequencing are not suitable for this purpose. Methods of preparing gDNA for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries could be adapted, but these approaches are time-consuming, and commercial kits for these methods are expensive. Here, we present a protocol for rapid, inexpensive extraction of high-molecular-weight gDNA from bacteria, plants, and animals. Our technique was validated using sunflower leaf samples, producing a mean read length of 12.6 kb and a maximum read length of 80 kb.

July 7, 2019  |  

Whole-genome sequencing for comparative genomics and de novo genome assembly.

Next-generation sequencing technologies for whole-genome sequencing of mycobacteria are rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to more traditional sequencing methods. In particular this technology is proving useful for genome-wide identification of mutations in mycobacteria (comparative genomics) as well as for de novo assembly of whole genomes. Next-generation sequencing however generates a vast quantity of data that can only be transformed into a usable and comprehensible form using bioinformatics. Here we describe the methodology one would use to prepare libraries for whole-genome sequencing, and the basic bioinformatics to identify mutations in a genome following Illumina HiSeq or MiSeq sequencing, as well as de novo genome assembly following sequencing using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio).

July 7, 2019  |  

Modified low-salt CTAB extraction of high-quality DNA from contaminant-rich tissues.

The increasing use of high-throughput sequencing platforms has made the isolation of pure, high molecular weight DNA a primary concern for studies of a diverse range of organisms. Purification of DNA remains a significant challenge in many tissue and sample types due to various organic and inorganic molecules that coprecipitate with nucleic acids. Molluscs, for example, contain high concentrations of polysaccharides which often coprecipitate with DNA and can inhibit downstream enzymatic reactions. We modified a low-salt CTAB (MoLSC) extraction protocol to accommodate contaminant-rich animal tissues and compared this method to a standard CTAB extraction protocol and two commercially available animal tissue DNA extraction kits using oyster adductor muscle. Comparisons of purity and molecular integrity showed that our in-house protocol yielded genomic DNA generally free of contaminants and shearing, whereas the traditional CTAB method and some of the commercial kits yielded DNA unsuitable for some applications of massively parallel sequencing. Our open-source MoLSC protocol provides a cost-effective, scalable, alternative DNA extraction method that can be easily optimized and adapted for sequencing applications in other contaminant-rich samples. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Molecular Ecology Resources © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

July 7, 2019  |  

Extraction of high molecular weight DNA from fungal rust spores for long read sequencing.

Wheat rust fungi are complex organisms with a complete life cycle that involves two different host plants and five different spore types. During the asexual infection cycle on wheat, rusts produce massive amounts of dikaryotic urediniospores. These spores are dikaryotic (two nuclei) with each nucleus containing one haploid genome. This dikaryotic state is likely to contribute to their evolutionary success, making them some of the major wheat pathogens globally. Despite this, most published wheat rust genomes are highly fragmented and contain very little haplotype-specific sequence information. Current long-read sequencing technologies hold great promise to provide more contiguous and haplotype-phased genome assemblies. Long reads are able to span repetitive regions and phase structural differences between the haplomes. This increased genome resolution enables the identification of complex loci and the study of genome evolution beyond simple nucleotide polymorphisms. Long-read technologies require pure high molecular weight DNA as an input for sequencing. Here, we describe a DNA extraction protocol for rust spores that yields pure double-stranded DNA molecules with molecular weight of >50 kilo-base pairs (kbp). The isolated DNA is of sufficient purity for PacBio long-read sequencing, but may require additional purification for other sequencing technologies such as Nanopore and 10× Genomics.

July 7, 2019  |  

A simple thermoplastic substrate containing hierarchical silica lamellae for high-molecular-weight DNA extraction.

An inexpensive, magnetic thermoplastic nanomaterial is developed utilizing a hierarchical layering of micro- and nanoscale silica lamellae to create a high-surface-area and low-shear substrate capable of capturing vast amounts of ultrahigh-molecular-weight DNA. Extraction is performed via a simple 45 min process and is capable of achieving binding capacities up to 1 000 000 times greater than silica microparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

July 7, 2019  |  

DNA extraction protocols for whole-genome sequencing in marine organisms.

The marine environment harbors a large proportion of the total biodiversity on this planet, including the majority of the earths’ different phyla and classes. Studying the genomes of marine organisms can bring interesting insights into genome evolution. Today, almost all marine organismal groups are understudied with respect to their genomes. One potential reason is that extraction of high-quality DNA in sufficient amounts is challenging for many marine species. This is due to high polysaccharide content, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites that will inhibit downstream DNA library preparations. Consequently, protocols developed for vertebrates and plants do not always perform well for invertebrates and algae. In addition, many marine species have large population sizes and, as a consequence, highly variable genomes. Thus, to facilitate the sequence read assembly process during genome sequencing, it is desirable to obtain enough DNA from a single individual, which is a challenge in many species of invertebrates and algae. Here, we present DNA extraction protocols for seven marine species (four invertebrates, two algae, and a marine yeast), optimized to provide sufficient DNA quality and yield for de novo genome sequencing projects.

July 7, 2019  |  

Small- and Large-Scale High Molecular Weight Genomic DNA Extraction from Planarians.

High-quality genomic DNA extraction is a starting point for many downstream applications in modern molecular biology. Here, we describe a simple method for isolating high molecular weight genomic DNA from planarians. The method is based on tissue lysis by a mixture of a chaotropic salt and detergent followed by organic extraction to remove proteins and lipids followed by a postpurification step to remove contaminating polysaccharides. The isolated DNA is of high molecular weight and compatible with polymerase chain reaction, cloning, or next-generation sequencing library preparation.

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