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Friday, July 19, 2019

Progress, challenges and the future of crop genomes.

The availability of plant reference genomes has ushered in a new era of crop genomics. More than 100 plant genomes have been sequenced since 2000, 63% of which are crop species. These genome sequences provide insight into architecture, evolution and novel aspects of crop genomes such as the retention of key agronomic traits after whole genome duplication events. Some crops have very large, polyploid, repeat-rich genomes, which require innovative strategies for sequencing, assembly and analysis. Even low quality reference genomes have the potential to improve crop germplasm through genome-wide molecular markers, which decrease expensive phenotyping and breeding cycles. The next…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Construction of a reference genetic map of Raphanus sativus based on genotyping by whole-genome resequencing.

This manuscript provides a genetic map of Raphanus sativus that has been used as a reference genetic map for an ongoing genome sequencing project. The map was constructed based on genotyping by whole-genome resequencing of mapping parents and F 2 population. Raphanus sativus is an annual vegetable crop species of the Brassicaceae family and is one of the key plants in the seed industry, especially in East Asia. Assessment of the R. sativus genome provides fundamental resources for crop improvement as well as the study of crop genome structure and evolution. With the goal of anchoring genome sequence assemblies of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A draft genome of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) provides tools for the domestication of a new winter biofuel crop.

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is being domesticated as a new winter cover crop and biofuel species for the Midwestern United States that can be double-cropped between corn and soybeans. A genome sequence will enable the use of new technologies to make improvements in pennycress. To generate a draft genome, a hybrid sequencing approach was used to generate 47 Gb of DNA sequencing reads from both the Illumina and PacBio platforms. These reads were used to assemble 6,768 genomic scaffolds. The draft genome was annotated using the MAKER pipeline, which identified 27,390 predicted protein-coding genes, with almost all of these…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Dissecting a hidden gene duplication: the Arabidopsis thaliana SEC10 locus.

Repetitive sequences present a challenge for genome sequence assembly, and highly similar segmental duplications may disappear from assembled genome sequences. Having found a surprising lack of observable phenotypic deviations and non-Mendelian segregation in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in SEC10, a gene encoding a core subunit of the exocyst tethering complex, we examined whether this could be explained by a hidden gene duplication. Re-sequencing and manual assembly of the Arabidopsis thaliana SEC10 (At5g12370) locus revealed that this locus, comprising a single gene in the reference genome assembly, indeed contains two paralogous genes in tandem, SEC10a and SEC10b, and that a sequence segment…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas brassicacearum DF41.

Pseudomonas brassicacearum DF41, a Gram-negative soil bacterium, is able to suppress the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through a process known as biological control. Here, we present a 6.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a P. brassicacearum strain.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Root-associated fungal microbiota of nonmycorrhizal Arabis alpina and its contribution to plant phosphorus nutrition.

Most land plants live in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rely on this symbiosis to scavenge phosphorus (P) from soil. The ability to establish this partnership has been lost in some plant lineages like the Brassicaceae, which raises the question of what alternative nutrition strategies such plants have to grow in P-impoverished soils. To understand the contribution of plant-microbiota interactions, we studied the root-associated fungal microbiome of Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae) with the hypothesis that some of its components can promote plant P acquisition. Using amplicon sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer 2, we studied the root and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The unusual S locus of Leavenworthia is composed of two sets of paralogous loci.

The Leavenworthia self-incompatibility locus (S locus) consists of paralogs (Lal2, SCRL) of the canonical Brassicaceae S locus genes (SRK, SCR), and is situated in a genomic position that differs from the ancestral one in the Brassicaceae. Unexpectedly, in a small number of Leavenworthia alabamica plants examined, sequences closely resembling exon 1 of SRK have been found, but the function of these has remained unclear. BAC cloning and expression analyses were employed to characterize these SRK-like sequences. An SRK-positive Bacterial Artificial Chromosome clone was found to contain complete SRK and SCR sequences located close by one another in the derived genomic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic maps and whole genome sequences of radish

Radish, Raphanus sativus L., is a member of Brassicaceae, to which Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant in plant biology, belongs, as do other Brassica species including important crops. However, genetic and genomic studies of radish have been behind those of Arabidopsis and Brassica. In this decade, much effort has been made to develop genetic resources for radish, e.g., DNA markers, genetic maps, and whole genome sequences. Studies using the obtained information have revealed the genome structure of radish in terms of ancestral karyotype and have also prompted the identification of genes for agronomically important traits in radish through a map-based…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Elucidating the triplicated ancestral genome structure of radish based on chromosome-level comparison with the Brassica genomes.

This study presents a chromosome-scale draft genome sequence of radish that is assembled into nine chromosomal pseudomolecules. A comprehensive comparative genome analysis with the Brassica genomes provides genomic evidences on the evolution of the mesohexaploid radish genome. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an agronomically important root vegetable crop and its origin and phylogenetic position in the tribe Brassiceae is controversial. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the radish genome based on the chromosome sequences of R. sativus cv. WK10039. The radish genome was sequenced and assembled into 426.2 Mb spanning >98 % of the gene space, of which 344.0 Mb were integrated…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence and annotation of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of crucifer anthracnose disease.

Colletotrichum higginsianum is an ascomycete fungus causing anthracnose disease on numerous cultivated plants in the family Brassicaceae, as well as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana We report an assembly of the nuclear genome and gene annotation of this pathogen, which was obtained using a combination of PacBio long-read sequencing and optical mapping. Copyright © 2016 Zampounis et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genome sequence of allopolyploid Brassica juncea and analysis of differential homoeolog gene expression influencing selection.

The Brassica genus encompasses three diploid and three allopolyploid genomes, but a clear understanding of the evolution of agriculturally important traits via polyploidy is lacking. We assembled an allopolyploid Brassica juncea genome by shotgun and single-molecule reads integrated to genomic and genetic maps. We discovered that the A subgenomes of B. juncea and Brassica napus each had independent origins. Results suggested that A subgenomes of B. juncea were of monophyletic origin and evolved into vegetable-use and oil-use subvarieties. Homoeolog expression dominance occurs between subgenomes of allopolyploid B. juncea, in which differentially expressed genes display more selection potential than neutral genes.…

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