Radish, Raphanus sativus L., is a member of Brassicaceae, to which Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant in plant biology, belongs, as do other Brassica species including important crops. However, genetic and genomic studies of radish have been behind those of Arabidopsis and Brassica. In this decade, much effort has been made to develop genetic resources for radish, e.g., DNA markers, genetic maps, and whole genome sequences. Studies using the obtained information have revealed the genome structure of radish in terms of ancestral karyotype and have also prompted the identification of genes for agronomically important traits in radish through a map-based cloning strategy and quantitative trait locus analysis. In this chapter, we review the evolving development of radish genetic map in the past 15 years and the current status of genome sequencing of radish. We also introduce the latest strategy for the construction of a high-density genetic map using next-generation sequencing technology and propose a prospective direction of genetics and genomics research in radish which would be helpful for researchers and breeders in their efforts to promote radish breeding programs efficiently.