April 21, 2020  |  

Comparative genomics reveals unique wood-decay strategies and fruiting body development in the Schizophyllaceae.

Agaricomycetes are fruiting body-forming fungi that produce some of the most efficient enzyme systems to degrade wood. Despite decades-long interest in their biology, the evolution and functional diversity of both wood-decay and fruiting body formation are incompletely known. We performed comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of wood-decay and fruiting body development in Auriculariopsis ampla and Schizophyllum commune (Schizophyllaceae), species with secondarily simplified morphologies, an enigmatic wood-decay strategy and weak pathogenicity to woody plants. The plant cell wall-degrading enzyme repertoires of Schizophyllaceae are transitional between those of white rot species and less efficient wood-degraders such as brown rot or mycorrhizal fungi. Rich repertoires of suberinase and tannase genes were found in both species, with tannases restricted to Agaricomycetes that preferentially colonize bark-covered wood, suggesting potential complementation of their weaker wood-decaying abilities and adaptations to wood colonization through the bark. Fruiting body transcriptomes revealed a high rate of divergence in developmental gene expression, but also several genes with conserved expression patterns, including novel transcription factors and small-secreted proteins, some of the latter which might represent fruiting body effectors. Taken together, our analyses highlighted novel aspects of wood-decay and fruiting body development in an important family of mushroom-forming fungi. © 2019 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2019 New Phytologist Trust.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characteristics of crude oil-degrading bacteria Gordonia iterans isolated from marine coastal in Taean sediment.

Crude oil is a major pollutant of marine and coastal ecosystems, and it causes environmental problems more seriously. It is believed ultimate and complete degradation is accomplished mainly by microorganisms. In this study, we aim to search out for bacterial strains with high ability in degrading crude oil. From sediments contaminated by the petroleum spilled in 2007, an accident in Taean, South Korea, we isolated thirty-one bacterial strains in total with potential application in crude oil contamination remediation. In terms of removal percentage after 7 days, one of the strains, Co17, showed the highest removal efficiency with 84.2% of crude oil in Bushnell-Haas media. The Co17 strain even exhibited outstanding ability removing crude oil at a high salt concentration. Through the whole genome sequencing annotation results, many genes related with n-alkane degradation in the genome of Gordonia sp. Co17, revealed alkane-1-monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase. Specially, for confirmation of gene-level, alkB gene encoding alkane hydroxylase (alkane-1-monooxygenase) was found in the strain Co17. The expression of alkB upregulated 125-fold after 18 hr accompany with the removal of n-alkanes of 48.9%. We therefore propose the strain Gordonia iterans Co17, isolated from crude oil-contaminated marine sediment, could be used to offer a new strategy for bioremediation with high efficiency. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of the novel agarolytic Catenovulum-like strain CCB-QB4

Members of the genus Catenovulum are recognized for their ability to degrade algal biomass. Here we report the complete genome of Cantenovulum–like strain CCB-QB4, an agarolytic bacterium isolated from the coastal area of Penang, Malaysia. The sequenced genome is composed of a 5,663,044?bp circular chromosome and a 208,085?bp circular plasmid. It contained 4409 protein coding and 83 RNA genes, including 62 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs. The genome of CCB-QB4 contains many agarases, which correlate with the high capacity of the strain to degrade agar. Genome sequencing of CCB-QB4 reveals gene candidates of potential interest in enzymatic industries or applications in the field of polysaccharides degradation.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of the genome of a Nocardia strain isolated from soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that specifically degrades crude oil and of this biodegradation.

A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3?Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination). The structural features of the genome might provide a competitive edge for the survival of N. soli Y48 in oil-polluted environments and reflect the adaptation of coexisting bacteria to distinct nutritional niches.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence unveiled cellulose degradation enzymes and secondary metabolic potentials in Streptomyces sp. CC0208.

Marine Streptomyces sp. CC0208 isolated from the Bohai Bay showed high efficiency of cellulose degradation under optimized fermentation parameters. Also, as one of the bioinformatics-based approaches for the discovery of novel natural product and enzyme effectively, genome mining has been developed and applied widely. Herein, we reported the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. CC0208.Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed a genome size of 9,325,981?bp with a linear chromosome, GC content of 70.59% and 8487 protein-coding genes. Abundant genes have predicted functions in antibiotic metabolism and enzymes. A 20 enzymes closely associated with cellulose degradation were discovered. A total of 25 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of secondary metabolites were identified, including diverse classes of natural products. The availability of genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. CC0208 not only will assist in cracking the mechanism of cellulose degradation but also will provide the insights into the significant secondary metabolic potentials for the production of diverse compound classes based on rational strategies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


April 21, 2020  |  

Lignin catabolic pathways reveal unique characteristics of dye-decolorizing peroxidases in Pseudomonas putida.

Lignin is one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the environment, playing an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, lignin degradation in bacteria, especially non-model organisms, has not been well characterized either enzymatically or genetically. Here, a lignin-degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas putida A514, was used as the research model. Genomic and proteomic analyses suggested that two B subfamily dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DypBs) were prominent in lignin depolymerization, while the classic O2 -dependent ring cleavage strategy was utilized in central pathways to catabolize lignin-derived aromatic compounds that were funnelled by peripheral pathways. These enzymes, together with a range of transporters, sequential and expression-dose dependent regulation and stress response systems coordinated for lignin metabolism. Catalytic assays indicated these DypBs show unique Mn2+ independent lignin depolymerization activity, while Mn2+ oxidation activity is absent. Furthermore, a high synergy between DypB enzymes and A514 cells was observed to promote cell growth (5 × 1012 cfus/ml) and lignin degradation (27%). This suggested DypBs are competitive lignin biocatalysts and pinpointed limited extracellular secretion capacity as the rate-limiting factor in bacterial lignin degradation. DypB production was, therefore, optimized in recombinant strains and a 14,141-fold increase in DypB activity (56,565?U/l) was achieved, providing novel insights for lignin bioconversion. © 2019 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

Biodegradation of naphthalene, BTEX, and aliphatic hydrocarbons by Paraburkholderia aromaticivorans BN5 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil.

To isolate bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of naphthalene, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene), and aliphatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated soil, three enrichment cultures were established using soil extract as the medium supplemented with naphthalene, BTEX, or n-hexadecane. Community analyses showed that Paraburkholderia species were predominant in naphthalene and BTEX, but relatively minor in n-hexadecane. Paraburkholderia aromaticivorans BN5 was able to degrade naphthalene and all BTEX compounds, but not n-hexadecane. The genome of strain BN5 harbors genes encoding 29 monooxygenases including two alkane 1-monooxygenases and 54 dioxygenases, indicating that strain BN5 has versatile metabolic capabilities, for diverse organic compounds: the ability of strain BN5 to degrade short chain aliphatic hydrocarbons was verified experimentally. The biodegradation pathways of naphthalene and BTEX compounds were bioinformatically predicted and verified experimentally through the analysis of their metabolic intermediates. Some genomic features including the encoding of the biodegradation genes on a plasmid and the low sequence homologies of biodegradation-related genes suggest that biodegradation potentials of strain BN5 may have been acquired via horizontal gene transfers and/or gene duplication, resulting in enhanced ecological fitness by enabling strain BN5 to degrade all compounds including naphthalene, BTEX, and short aliphatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil.


September 22, 2019  |  

Biodegradation of nonylphenol during aerobic composting of sewage sludge under two intermittent aeration treatments in a full-scale plant.

The urbanization and industrialization of cities around the coastal region of the Bohai Sea have produced large amounts of sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants. Research on the biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) and the influencing factors of such biodegradation during sewage sludge composting is important to control pollution caused by land application of sewage sludge. The present study investigated the effect of aeration on NP biodegradation and the microbe community during aerobic composting under two intermittent aeration treatments in a full-scale plant of sewage sludge, sawdust, and returned compost at a ratio of 6:3:1. The results showed that 65% of NP was biodegraded and that Bacillus was the dominant bacterial species in the mesophilic phase. The amount of NP biodegraded in the mesophilic phase was 68.3%, which accounted for 64.6% of the total amount of biodegraded NP. The amount of NP biodegraded under high-volume aeration was 19.6% higher than that under low-volume aeration. Bacillus was dominant for 60.9% of the composting period under high-volume aeration, compared to 22.7% dominance under low-volume aeration. In the thermophilic phase, high-volume aeration promoted the biodegradation of NP and Bacillus remained the dominant bacterial species. In the cooling and stable phases, the contents of NP underwent insignificant change while different dominant bacteria were observed in the two treatments. NP was mostly biodegraded by Bacillus, and the rate of biodegradation was significantly correlated with the abundance of Bacillus (r?=?0.63, p?


September 22, 2019  |  

Quantitative metaproteomics highlight the metabolic contributions of uncultured phylotypes in a thermophilic anaerobic digester.

In this study, we used multiple meta-omic approaches to characterize the microbial community and the active metabolic pathways of a stable industrial biogas reactor with food waste as the dominant feedstock, operating at thermophilic temperatures (60°C) and elevated levels of free ammonia (367 mg/liter NH3-N). The microbial community was strongly dominated (76% of all 16S rRNA amplicon sequences) by populations closely related to the proteolytic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus. Multiple Coprothermobacter-affiliated strains were detected, introducing an additional level of complexity seldom explored in biogas studies. Genome reconstructions provided metabolic insight into the microbes that performed biomass deconstruction and fermentation, including the deeply branching phyla Dictyoglomi and Planctomycetes and the candidate phylum “Atribacteria” These biomass degraders were complemented by a synergistic network of microorganisms that convert key fermentation intermediates (fatty acids) via syntrophic interactions with hydrogenotrophic methanogens to ultimately produce methane. Interpretation of the proteomics data also suggested activity of a Methanosaeta phylotype acclimatized to high ammonia levels. In particular, we report multiple novel phylotypes proposed as syntrophic acetate oxidizers, which also exert expression of enzymes needed for both the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and ß-oxidation of fatty acids to acetyl coenzyme A. Such an arrangement differs from known syntrophic oxidizing bacteria and presents an interesting hypothesis for future studies. Collectively, these findings provide increased insight into active metabolic roles of uncultured phylotypes and presents new synergistic relationships, both of which may contribute to the stability of the biogas reactor.Biogas production through anaerobic digestion of organic waste provides an attractive source of renewable energy and a sustainable waste management strategy. A comprehensive understanding of the microbial community that drives anaerobic digesters is essential to ensure stable and efficient energy production. Here, we characterize the intricate microbial networks and metabolic pathways in a thermophilic biogas reactor. We discuss the impact of frequently encountered microbial populations as well as the metabolism of newly discovered novel phylotypes that seem to play distinct roles within key microbial stages of anaerobic digestion in this stable high-temperature system. In particular, we draft a metabolic scenario whereby multiple uncultured syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria are capable of syntrophically oxidizing acetate as well as longer-chain fatty acids (via the ß-oxidation and Wood-Ljundahl pathways) to hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which methanogens subsequently convert to methane. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.


September 22, 2019  |  

Recent developments in using advanced sequencing technologies for the genomic studies of lignin and cellulose degrading microorganisms.

Lignin is a complex polyphenyl aromatic compound which exists in tight associations with cellulose and hemicellulose to form plant primary and secondary cell wall. Lignocellulose is an abundant renewable biomaterial present on the earth. It has gained much attention in the scientific community in recent years because of its potential applications in bio-based industries. Microbial degradation of lignocellulose polymers was well studied in wood decaying fungi. Based on the plant materials they degrade these fungi were classified as white rot, brown rot and soft rot. However, some groups of bacteria belonging to the actinomycetes, a-proteobacteria and ß-proteobacteria were also found to be efficient in degrading lignocellulosic biomass but not well understood unlike the fungi. In this review we focus on recent advancements deployed for finding and understanding the lignocellulose degradation by microorganisms. Conventional molecular methods like sequencing 16s rRNA and Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were used for identification and classification of microbes. Recent progression in genomics mainly next generation sequencing technologies made the whole genome sequencing of microbes possible in a great ease. The whole genome sequence studies reveals high quality information about genes and canonical pathways involved in the lignin and other cell wall components degradation.


September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Elizabethkingia sp. BM10, a symbiotic bacterium of the wood-feeding termite Reticulitermes speratus KMT1.

Elizabethkingia sp. BM10 was isolated from the hindgut of the wood-feeding termite Reticulitermes speratus KMT1. It had cellobiohydrolase and ß-glucosidase activities but not endo-ß-glucanase activity. The complete sequence of its genome, which has a total size of 4,242,519 bases, is reported here. The genomic analysis identified six ß-glucosidase candidate genes and three ß-glucanase candidate genes. Copyright © 2015 Lee et al.


September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Sphingobium baderi DE-13, an alkyl-substituted aniline-mineralizing bacterium.

Alkyl-substituted aniline is an important aniline derivative that may be associated with serious environmental risks. Previously, Sphingobium baderi DE-13, a bacterium that can mineralize alkyl substituted anilines such as 2,6-dimethylaniline, 2,6-diethylaniline, 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline, 2-methylaniline, and 2-ethylaniline, was isolated from active sludge. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain DE-13. It contains one circular chromosome and eight circular plasmids with total 4,583,422 bp and GC content of 62.41%. The reported and predicted genes involved in the catabolism of alkyl-substituted anilines are indicated. This study will provide insights into the bacterial catabolism of alkyl substituted anilines.


September 22, 2019  |  

The genome sequence of the soft-rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum reveals a high gene dosage for lignocellulolytic enzymes.

The high lignocellulolytic activity displayed by the soft-rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum has made it a target for the study of novel lignocellulolytic enzymes. We have obtained a reference genome of 36.2 Mb of non-redundant sequence (11,057 protein-coding genes). The 49 largest scaffolds cover 90% of the assembly, and Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach (CEGMA) analysis reveals that our assembly captures almost all protein-coding genes. RNA-seq was performed and 93.1% of the reads aligned to the assembled genome. These data, plus the independent sequencing of a set of genes of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, validate the quality of the genome sequence. P. purpurogenum shows a higher number of proteins with CAZy motifs, transcription factors and transporters as compared to other sequenced Penicillia. These results demonstrate the great potential for lignocellulolytic activity of this fungus and the possible use of its enzymes in related industrial applications.


September 22, 2019  |  

Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by a novel endophytic Bacillus megaterium strain YJB3.

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a group of recalcitrant and hazardous organic compounds that pose a great threat to both ecosystem and human beings. A novel endophytic strain YJB3 that could utilize a wide range of PAEs as the sole carbon and energy sources for cell growth was isolated from Canna indica root tissue. It was identified as Bacillus megaterium based on morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence homology analysis. The degradation capability of the strain YJB3 was investigated by incubation in mineral salt medium containing di-n-butyl-phthalate (DBP), one of important PAEs under different environmental conditions, showing 82.5% of the DBP removal in 5days of incubation under the optimum conditions (acetate 1.2g·L-1, inocula 1.8%, and temperature 34.2°C) achieved by two-step sequential optimization technologies. The DBP metabolites including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), phthalic acid (PA), protocatechuic acid (PCA), etc. were determined by GC-MS. The PCA catabolic genes responsible for the aromatic ring cleavage of PCA in the strain YJB3 were excavated by whole-genome sequencing. Thus, a degradation pathway of DBP by the strain YJB3 was proposed that MBP was formed, followed by PA, and then the intermediates were further utilized till complete degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show the biodegradation of PAEs using endophyte. The results in the present study suggest that the strain YJB3 is greatly promising to act as a competent inoculum in removal of PAEs in both soils and crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

Catabolism of 2-hydroxypyridine by Burkholderia sp. MAK1: a five-gene cluster encoded 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase HpdABCDE catalyses the first step of biodegradation.

Microbial degradation of 2-hydroxypyridine usually results in the formation of a blue pigment (nicotine blue). In contrast, the Burkholderia sp. strain MAK1 bacterium utilizes 2-hydroxypyridine without the accumulation of nicotine blue. This scarcely investigated degradation pathway presumably employs 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase, an elusive enzyme that has been hypothesized but has yet to be identified or characterized. The isolation of the mutant strain Burkholderia sp. MAK1 ?P5 that is unable to utilize 2-hydroxypyridine has led to the identification of a gene cluster (designated hpd) which is responsible for the degradation of 2-hydroxypyridine. The activity of 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase has been assigned to a soluble diiron monooxygenase (SDIMO) encoded by a five-gene cluster (hpdA, hpdB, hpdC, hpdD, and hpdE). A 4.5-kb DNA fragment containing all five genes has been successfully expressed in Burkholderia sp. MAK1 ?P5 cells. We have proved that the recombinant HpdABCDE protein catalyzes the enzymatic turnover of 2-hydroxypyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Moreover, we have confirmed that emerging 2,5-dihydroxypyridine is a substrate for HpdF, an enzyme similar to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine 5,6-dioxygenases that are involved in the catabolic pathways of nicotine and nicotinic acid. The proteins and genes identified in this study have allowed the identification of a novel degradation pathway of 2-hydroxypyridine. Our results provide a better understanding of the biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in nature. Also, the discovered 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase may be an attractive catalyst for the regioselective synthesis of various N-heterocyclic compounds.IMPORTANCE The degradation pathway of 2-hydroxypyridine without the accumulation of a blue pigment is relatively unexplored, as, to our knowledge, no genetic data related to this process have ever been presented. In this paper, we describe genes and enzymes involved in this little-studied catabolic pathway. This work provides new insights into the metabolism of 2-hydroxypyridine in nature. A broad-range substrate specificity of 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the degradation, makes this biocatalyst attractive for the regioselective hydroxylation of pyridine derivatives. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.


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